Canada Business Corporations Act
Part I Interpretation and Application
Section 2(1)

officer (CBCA)

In this Act…officer means an individual appointed as an officer under section 121, the chairperson of the board of directors, the president, a vice-president, the secretary, the treasurer, the comptroller, the general counsel, the general manager, a managing director, of a corporation, or any other individual who performs functions for a corporation similar to those normally performed by an individual occupying any of those offices;


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part I Interpretation and Application
Section 2(3)

Control

For the purposes of this Act, a body corporate is controlled by a person or by two or more bodies corporate if

(a) securities of the body corporate to which are attached more than fifty per cent of the votes that may be cast to elect directors of the body corporate are held, other than by way of security only, by or for the benefit of that person or by or for the benefit of those bodies corporate; and

(b) the votes attached to those securities are sufficient, if exercised, to elect a majority of the directors of the body corporate.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part I Interpretation and Application
Section 2(5)

Subsidiary body corporate

A body corporate is a subsidiary of another body corporate if

(a) it is controlled by

(i) that other body corporate,

(ii) that other body corporate and one or more bodies corporate each of which is controlled by that other body corporate, or

(iii) two or more bodies corporate each of which is controlled by that other body corporate; or

(b) it is a subsidiary of a body corporate that is a subsidiary of that other body corporate.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XII Shareholders
Section 133

Calling annual meetings; Calling special meetings; Order to delay calling of annual meeting

Calling annual meetings

(1) The directors of a corporation shall call an annual meeting of shareholders

(a) not later than eighteen months after the corporation comes into existence; and

(b) subsequently, not later than fifteen months after holding the last preceding annual meeting but no later than six months after the end of the corporation’s preceding financial year.

Calling special meetings

(2) The directors of a corporation may at any time call a special meeting of shareholders.

Order to delay calling of annual meeting

(3) Despite subsection (1), the corporation may apply to the court for an order extending the time for calling an annual meeting.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XII Shareholders
Section 134

Fixing record date; No record date fixed; When record date fixed

Fixing record date

(1) The directors may, within the prescribed period, fix in advance a date as the record date for the purpose of determining shareholders

(a) entitled to receive payment of a dividend;

(b) entitled to participate in a liquidation distribution;

(c) entitled to receive notice of a meeting of shareholders;

(d) entitled to vote at a meeting of shareholders; or

(e) for any other purpose.

No record date fixed

(2) If no record date is fixed,

(a) the record date for the determination of shareholders entitled to receive notice of a meeting of shareholders shall be

(i) at the close of business on the day immediately preceding the day on which the notice is given, or

(ii) if no notice is given, the day on which the meeting is held; and

(b) the record date for the determination of shareholders for any purpose other than to establish a shareholder’s right to receive notice of a meeting or to vote shall be at the close of business on the day on which the directors pass the resolution relating thereto.

When record date fixed

(3) If a record date is fixed, unless notice of the record date is waived in writing by every holder of a share of the class or series affected whose name is set out in the securities register at the close of business on the day the directors fix the record date, notice of the record date must be given within the prescribed period

(a) by advertisement in a newspaper published or distributed in the place where the corporation has its registered office and in each place in Canada where it has a transfer agent or where a transfer of its shares may be recorded; and

(b) by written notice to each stock exchange in Canada on which the shares of the corporation are listed for trading.

(4) [Repealed, 2001, c. 14, s. 57]


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XII Shareholders
Section 135

Notice of meeting; Exceptions; Adjournment; Business

Notice of meeting

(1) Notice of the time and place of a meeting of shareholders shall be sent within the prescribed period to

(a) each shareholder entitled to vote at the meeting;

(b) each director; and

(c) the auditor of the corporation.

Exception – not a distributing corporation

(1.1) In the case of a corporation that is not a distributing corporation, the notice may be sent within a shorter period if so specified in the articles or by-laws.

Exception – shareholders not registered

(2) A notice of a meeting is not required to be sent to shareholders who were not registered on the records of the corporation or its transfer agent on the record date determined under paragraph 134(1)(c) or subsection 134(2), but failure to receive a notice does not deprive a shareholder of the right to vote at the meeting.

Adjournment

(3) If a meeting of shareholders is adjourned for less than thirty days it is not necessary, unless the by-laws otherwise provide, to give notice of the adjourned meeting, other than by announcement at the earliest meeting that is adjourned.

Notice of adjourned meeting

(4) If a meeting of shareholders is adjourned by one or more adjournments for an aggregate of thirty days or more, notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given as for an original meeting but, unless the meeting is adjourned by one or more adjournments for an aggregate of more than ninety days, subsection 149(1) does not apply.

Business

(5) All business transacted at a special meeting of shareholders and all business transacted at an annual meeting of shareholders, except consideration of the financial statements, auditor’s report, election of directors and re-appointment of the incumbent auditor, is deemed to be special business.

Notice of business

(6) Notice of a meeting of shareholders at which special business is to be transacted shall state

(a) the nature of that business in sufficient detail to permit the shareholder to form a reasoned judgment thereon; and

(b) the text of any special resolution to be submitted to the meeting.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XII Shareholders
Section 137

Shareholder Proposals

(1) Subject to subsections (1.1) and (1.2), a registered holder or beneficial owner of shares that are entitled to be voted at an annual meeting of shareholders may

(a) submit to the corporation notice of any matter that the person proposes to raise at the meeting (a “proposal”); and

(b) discuss at the meeting any matter in respect of which the person would have been entitled to submit a proposal.

Persons eligible to make proposals

(1.1) To be eligible to submit a proposal, a person

(a) must be, for at least the prescribed period, the registered holder or the beneficial owner of at least the prescribed number of outstanding shares of the corporation; or

(b) must have the support of persons who, in the aggregate, and including or not including the person that submits the proposal, have been, for at least the prescribed period, the registered holders, or the beneficial owners of, at least the prescribed number of outstanding shares of the corporation.

Information to be provided

(1.2) A proposal submitted under paragraph (1)(a) must be accompanied by the following information:

(a) the name and address of the person and of the person’s supporters, if applicable; and

(b) the number of shares held or owned by the person and the person’s supporters, if applicable, and the date the shares were acquired.

Information not part of proposal

(1.3) The information provided under subsection (1.2) does not form part of the proposal or of the supporting statement referred to in subsection (3) and is not included for the purposes of the prescribed maximum word limit set out in subsection (3).

Proof may be required

(1.4) If requested by the corporation within the prescribed period, a person who submits a proposal must provide proof, within the prescribed period, that the person meets the requirements of subsection (1.1).

Information circular

(2) A corporation that solicits proxies shall set out the proposal in the management proxy circular required by section 150 or attach the proposal thereto.

Supporting statement

(3) If so requested by the person who submits a proposal, the corporation shall include in the management proxy circular or attach to it a statement in support of the proposal by the person and the name and address of the person. The statement and the proposal must together not exceed the prescribed maximum number of words.

Nomination for director

(4) A proposal may include nominations for the election of directors if the proposal is signed by one or more holders of shares representing in the aggregate not less than five per cent of the shares or five per cent of the shares of a class of shares of the corporation entitled to vote at the meeting to which the proposal is to be presented, but this subsection does not preclude nominations made at a meeting of shareholders.

Exemptions

(5) A corporation is not required to comply with subsections (2) and (3) if

(a) the proposal is not submitted to the corporation at least the prescribed number of days before the anniversary date of the notice of meeting that was sent to shareholders in connection with the previous annual meeting of shareholders;

(b) it clearly appears that the primary purpose of the proposal is to enforce a personal claim or redress a personal grievance against the corporation or its directors, officers or security holders;

(b.1) it clearly appears that the proposal does not relate in a significant way to the business or affairs of the corporation;

(c) not more than the prescribed period before the receipt of a proposal, a person failed to present, in person or by proxy, at a meeting of shareholders, a proposal that at the person’s request, had been included in a management proxy circular relating to the meeting;

(d) substantially the same proposal was submitted to shareholders in a management proxy circular or a dissident’s proxy circular relating to a meeting of shareholders held not more than the prescribed period before the receipt of the proposal and did not receive the prescribed minimum amount of support at the meeting; or

(e) the rights conferred by this section are being abused to secure publicity.

Corporation may refuse to include proposal

(5.1) If a person who submits a proposal fails to continue to hold or own the number of shares referred to in subsection (1.1) up to and including the day of the meeting, the corporation is not required to set out in the management proxy circular, or attach to it, any proposal submitted by that person for any meeting held within the prescribed period following the date of the meeting.

Immunity

(6) No corporation or person acting on its behalf incurs any liability by reason only of circulating a proposal or statement in compliance with this section.

Notice of refusal

(7) If a corporation refuses to include a proposal in a management proxy circular, the corporation shall, within the prescribed period after the day on which it receives the proposal or the day on which it receives the proof of ownership under subsection (1.4), as the case may be, notify in writing the person submitting the proposal of its intention to omit the proposal from the management proxy circular and of the reasons for the refusal.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XII Shareholders
Section 138

List of shareholders entitled to receive notice; Voting list; Entitlement to Vote

List of shareholders entitled to receive notice

(1) A corporation shall prepare an alphabetical list of its shareholders entitled to receive notice of a meeting, showing the number of shares held by each shareholder;

(a) if a record date is fixed under paragraph 134(1)(c), not later than ten days after that date; or

(b) if no record date is fixed, on the record date established under paragraph 134(2)(a).

Voting list — if record date fixed

(2) If a record date for voting is fixed under paragraph 134(1)(d), the corporation shall prepare, no later than ten days after the record date, an alphabetical list of shareholders entitled to vote as of the record date at a meeting of shareholders that shows the number of shares held by each shareholder.

Voting list — if no record date fixed

(3) If a record date for voting is not fixed under paragraph 134(1)(d), the corporation shall prepare, not later than 10 days after the record date that is fixed under paragraph 134(1)(c) or not later than the record date that is established under paragraph 134(2)(a), as the case may be, an alphabetical list of shareholders who are entitled to vote as of the record date that shows the number of shares held by each shareholder.

Entitlement to vote

(3.1) A shareholder whose name appears on a list prepared under subsection (2) or (3) is entitled to vote the shares shown opposite their name at the meeting to which the list relates.

Examination of list

(4) A shareholder may examine the list of shareholders

(a) during usual business hours at the registered office of the corporation or at the place where its central securities register is maintained; and

(b) at the meeting of shareholders for which the list was prepared.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIII Proxies
Section 149

Mandatory Solicitation

Mandatory solicitation

(1) Subject to subsection (2), the management of a corporation shall, concurrently with giving notice of a meeting of shareholders, send a form of proxy in prescribed form to each shareholder who is entitled to receive notice of the meeting.

Exception

(2) The management of the corporation is not required to send a form of proxy under subsection (1) if it

(a) is not a distributing corporation; and

(b) has fifty or fewer shareholders entitled to vote at a meeting, two or more joint holders being counted as one shareholder.

Offence

(3) If the management of a corporation fails to comply, without reasonable cause, with subsection (1), the corporation is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIII Proxies
Section 150

Soliciting Proxies

Soliciting proxies

(1) A person shall not solicit proxies unless

(a) in the case of solicitation by or on behalf of the management of a corporation, a management proxy circular in prescribed form, either as an appendix to or as a separate document accompanying the notice of the meeting, or

(b) in the case of any other solicitation, a dissident’s proxy circular in prescribed form stating the purposes of the solicitation

is sent to the auditor of the corporation, to each shareholder whose proxy is solicited, to each director and, if paragraph (b) applies, to the corporation.

Exception — solicitation to fifteen or fewer shareholders

(1.1) Despite subsection (1), a person may solicit proxies, other than by or on behalf of the management of the corporation, without sending a dissident’s proxy circular, if the total number of shareholders whose proxies are solicited is fifteen or fewer, two or more joint holders being counted as one shareholder.

Exception — solicitation by public broadcast

(1.2) Despite subsection (1), a person may solicit proxies, other than by or on behalf of the management of the corporation, without sending a dissident’s proxy circular if the solicitation is, in the prescribed circumstances, conveyed by public broadcast, speech or publication.

Copy to Director

(2) A person required to send a management proxy circular or dissident’s proxy circular shall send concurrently a copy of it to the Director together with a statement in prescribed form, the form of proxy, any other documents for use in connection with the meeting and, in the case of a management proxy circular, a copy of the notice of meeting.

Offence

(3) A person who fails to comply with subsections (1) and (2) is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both, whether or not the body corporate has been prosecuted or convicted.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 155

Annual Financial Statements

(1) The directors of a corporation shall place before the shareholders at every annual meeting

(a) prescribed comparative financial statements that conform to any prescribed requirements and relate separately to

(i) the period that began on the date the corporation came into existence and ended not more than six months before the annual meeting or, if the corporation has completed a financial year, the period that began immediately after the end of the last completed financial year and ended not more than six months before the annual meeting, and

(ii) the immediately preceding financial year;

(b) the report of the auditor, if any; and

(c) any further information respecting the financial position of the corporation and the results of its operations required by the articles, the by-laws or any unanimous shareholder agreement. Exception

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(a), the financial statements referred to in subparagraph (1)(a)(ii) may be omitted if the reason for the omission is set out in the financial statements, or in a note thereto, to be placed before the shareholders at an annual meeting.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 156

Application For Exemption

On the application of a corporation, the Director may exempt the corporation, on any terms that the Director thinks fit, from any requirement set out in section 155 or any of sections 157 to 160, if the Director reasonably believes that the detriment that may be caused to the corporation by the requirement outweighs its benefit to the shareholders or, in the case of a distributing corporation, to the public.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 157

Consolidated Statements

(1) A corporation shall keep at its registered office a copy of the financial statements of each of its subsidiary bodies corporate and of each body corporate the accounts of which are consolidated in the financial statements of the corporation.

Examination

(2) Shareholders of a corporation and their personal representatives may on request examine the statements referred to in subsection (1) during the usual business hours of the corporation and may make extracts free of charge.

Barring examination

(3) A corporation may, within fifteen days of a request to examine under subsection (2), apply to a court for an order barring the right of any person to so examine, and the court may, if it is satisfied that such examination would be detrimental to the corporation or a subsidiary body corporate, bar such right and make any further order it thinks fit.

Notice to Director

(4) A corporation shall give the Director and the person asking to examine under subsection (2) notice of an application under subsection (3), and the Director and such person may appear and be heard in person or by counsel.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 158

Approval Of Financial Statements

(1) The directors of a corporation shall approve the financial statements referred to in section 155 and the approval shall be evidenced by the manual signature of one or more directors or a facsimile of the signatures reproduced in the statements. Condition precedent

(2) A corporation shall not issue, publish or circulate copies of the financial statements referred to in section 155 unless the financial statements are

(a) approved and signed in accordance with subsection (1); and

(b) accompanied by the report of the auditor of the corporation, if any.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 159

Copies To Shareholders

(1) A corporation shall, not less than twenty-one days before each annual meeting of shareholders or before the signing of a resolution under paragraph 142(1)(b) in lieu of the annual meeting, send a copy of the documents referred to in section 155 to each shareholder, except to a shareholder who has informed the corporation in writing that he or she does not want a copy of those documents.

Offence

(2) A corporation that, without reasonable cause, fails to comply with subsection (1) is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 160

Copies To Director

(1) A distributing corporation, any of the issued securities of which remain outstanding and are held by more than one person, shall send a copy of the documents referred to in section 155 to the Director

(a) not less than twenty-one days before each annual meeting of shareholders, or without delay after a resolution referred to in paragraph 142(1)(b) is signed; and

(b) in any event within fifteen months after the last preceding annual meeting should have been held or a resolution in lieu of the meeting should have been signed, but no later than six months after the end of the corporation’s preceding financial year.

Subsidiary corporation exemption

(2) A subsidiary corporation is not required to comply with this section if

(a) the financial statements of its holding corporation are in consolidated or combined form and include the accounts of the subsidiary; and

(b) the consolidated or combined financial statements of the holding corporation are included in the documents sent to the Director by the holding corporation in compliance with this section.

Offence

(3) A corporation that fails to comply with this section is guilty of an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 161

Qualification Of Auditor

(1) Subject to subsection (5), a person is disqualified from being an auditor of a corporation if the person is not independent of the corporation, any of its affiliates, or the directors or officers of any such corporation or its affiliates.

Independence

(2) For the purposes of this section,

(a) independence is a question of fact; and

(b) a person is deemed not to be independent if they or their business partner

(i) is a business partner, a director, an officer or an employee of the corporation or any of its affiliates, or a business partner of any director, officer or employee of any such corporation or any of its affiliates,

(ii) beneficially owns or controls, directly or indirectly, a material interest in the securities of the corporation or any of its affiliates, or

(iii) has been a receiver, receiver-manager, sequestrator, liquidator or trustee in bankruptcy of the corporation or any of its affiliates within two years of the person’s proposed appointment as auditor of the corporation.

Business partners

(2.1) For the purposes of subsection (2), a person’s business partner includes a shareholder of that person.

Duty to resign

(3) An auditor who becomes disqualified under this section shall, subject to subsection (5), resign forthwith after becoming aware of the disqualification.

Disqualification order

(4) An interested person may apply to a court for an order declaring an auditor to be disqualified under this section and the office of auditor to be vacant.

Exemption order

(5) An interested person may apply to a court for an order exempting an auditor from disqualification under this section and the court may, if it is satisfied that an exemption would not unfairly prejudice the shareholders, make an exemption order on such terms as it thinks fit, which order may have retrospective effect.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 162

Appointment Of Auditor

(1) Subject to section 163, shareholders of a corporation shall, by ordinary resolution, at the first annual meeting of shareholders and at each succeeding annual meeting, appoint an auditor to hold office until the close of the next annual meeting.

Eligibility

(2) An auditor appointed under section 104 is eligible for appointment under subsection (1).

Incumbent auditor

(3) Notwithstanding subsection (1), if an auditor is not appointed at a meeting of shareholders, the incumbent auditor continues in office until a successor is appointed.

Remuneration

(4) The remuneration of an auditor may be fixed by ordinary resolution of the shareholders or, if not so fixed, may be fixed by the directors.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 163

Dispensing With Auditor

(1) The shareholders of a corporation that is not a distributing corporation may resolve not to appoint an auditor.

Limitation

(2) A resolution under subsection (1) is valid only until the next succeeding annual meeting of shareholders.

Unanimous consent

(3) A resolution under subsection (1) is not valid unless it is consented to by all the shareholders, including shareholders not otherwise entitled to vote. (4) [Repealed, 1994, c. 24, s. 18]


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 164

Ceasing To Hold Office

(1) An auditor of a corporation ceases to hold office when the auditor

(a) dies or resigns; or

(b) is removed pursuant to section 165.

Effective date of resignation

(2) A resignation of an auditor becomes effective at the time a written resignation is sent to the corporation, or at the time specified in the resignation, whichever is later.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 166

Filling Vacancy

(1) Subject to subsection (3), the directors shall forthwith fill a vacancy in the office of auditor.

Calling meeting

(2) If there is not a quorum of directors, the directors then in office shall, within twenty-one days after a vacancy in the office of auditor occurs, call a special meeting of shareholders to fill the vacancy and, if they fail to call a meeting or if there are no directors, the meeting may be called by any shareholder.

Shareholders filling vacancy

(3) The articles of a corporation may provide that a vacancy in the office of auditor shall only be filled by vote of the shareholders.

Unexpired term

(4) An auditor appointed to fill a vacancy holds office for the unexpired term of the auditor’s predecessor.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 168

Right To Attend Meeting

(1) The auditor of a corporation is entitled to receive notice of every meeting of shareholders and, at the expense of the corporation, to attend and be heard on matters relating to the auditor’s duties.

Duty to attend

(2) If a director or shareholder of a corporation, whether or not the shareholder is entitled to vote at the meeting, gives written notice not less than ten days before a meeting of shareholders to the auditor or a former auditor of the corporation, the auditor or former auditor shall attend the meeting at the expense of the corporation and answer questions relating to their duties as auditor.

Notice to corporation

(3) A director or shareholder who sends a notice referred to in subsection (2) shall send concurrently a copy of the notice to the corporation.

Offence

(4) An auditor or former auditor of a corporation who fails without reasonable cause to comply with subsection (2) is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both.

Statement of auditor

(5) An auditor is entitled to submit to the corporation a written statement giving reasons for resigning or for opposing any proposed action or resolution when the auditor

(a) resigns;

(b) receives a notice or otherwise learns of a meeting of shareholders called for the purpose of removing the auditor from office;

(c) receives a notice or otherwise learns of a meeting of directors or shareholders at which another person is to be appointed to fill the office of auditor, whether because of the resignation or removal of the incumbent auditor or because the auditor’s term of office has expired or is about to expire; or

(d) receives a notice or otherwise learns of a meeting of shareholders at which a resolution referred to in section 163 is to be proposed.

Other statements

(5.1) In the case of a proposed replacement of an auditor, whether through removal or at the end of the auditor’s term, the following rules apply with respect to other statements:

(a) the corporation shall make a statement on the reasons for the proposed replacement; and

(b) the proposed replacement auditor may make a statement in which he or she comments on the reasons referred to in paragraph (a).

Circulating statement

(6) The corporation shall send a copy of the statements referred to in subsections (5) and (5.1) without delay to every shareholder entitled to receive notice of a meeting referred to in subsection (1) and to the Director, unless the statement is included in or attached to a management proxy circular required by section 150.

Replacing auditor

(7) No person shall accept appointment or consent to be appointed as auditor of a corporation to replace an auditor who has resigned, been removed or whose term of office has expired or is about to expire until the person has requested and received from that auditor a written statement of the circumstances and the reasons, in that auditor’s opinion, for their replacement.

Exception

(8) Notwithstanding subsection (7), a person otherwise qualified may accept appointment or consent to be appointed as auditor of a corporation if, within fifteen days after making the request referred to in that subsection, the person does not receive a reply.

Effect of non-compliance

(9) Unless subsection (8) applies, an appointment as auditor of a corporation of a person who has not complied with subsection (7) is void.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 169

Examination

(1) An auditor of a corporation shall make the examination that is in their opinion necessary to enable them to report in the prescribed manner on the financial statements required by this Act to be placed before the shareholders, except such financial statements or part thereof that relate to the period referred to in subparagraph 155(1)(a)(ii).

Reliance on other auditor

(2) Notwithstanding section 170, an auditor of a corporation may reasonably rely on the report of an auditor of a body corporate or an unincorporated business the accounts of which are included in whole or in part in the financial statements of the corporation.

Reasonableness

(3) For the purpose of subsection (2), reasonableness is a question of fact.

Application

(4) Subsection (2) applies whether or not the financial statements of the holding corporation reported on by the auditor are in consolidated form.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 170

Right To Information

(1) On the demand of an auditor of a corporation, the present or former directors, officers, employees, agents or mandataries of the corporation shall provide any

(a) information and explanations, and

(b) access to records, documents, books, accounts and vouchers of the corporation or any of its subsidiaries

that are, in the opinion of the auditor, necessary to enable the auditor to make the examination and report required under section 169 and that the directors, officers, employees, agents or mandataries are reasonably able to provide.

Idem

(2) On the demand of the auditor of a corporation, the directors of the corporation shall

(a) obtain from the present or former directors, officers, employees and agents or mandataries of any subsidiary of the corporation the information and explanations that the present or former directors, officers, employees and agents or mandataries are reasonably able to provide and that are, in the opinion of the auditor, necessary to enable the auditor to make the examination and report required under section 169; and

(b) furnish the auditor with the information and explanations so obtained.

No civil liability

(3) A person who in good faith makes an oral or written communication under subsection (1) or (2) is not liable in any civil proceeding arising from having made the communication.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XIV Financial Disclosure
Section 171

Audit Committee

(1) Subject to subsection (2), a corporation described in subsection 102(2) shall, and any other corporation may, have an audit committee composed of not less than three directors of the corporation, a majority of whom are not officers or employees of the corporation or any of its affiliates.

Exemption

(2) The Director may, on the application of a corporation, authorize the corporation to dispense with an audit committee, and the Director may, if satisfied that the shareholders will not be prejudiced, permit the corporation to dispense with an audit committee on any reasonable conditions that the Director thinks fit.

Duty of committee

(3) An audit committee shall review the financial statements of the corporation before such financial statements are approved under section 158.

Auditor’s attendance

(4) The auditor of a corporation is entitled to receive notice of every meeting of the audit committee and, at the expense of the corporation, to attend and be heard thereat; and, if so requested by a member of the audit committee, shall attend every meeting of the committee held during the term of office of the auditor.

Calling meeting

(5) The auditor of a corporation or a member of the audit committee may call a meeting of the committee.

Notice of errors

(6) A director or an officer of a corporation shall forthwith notify the audit committee and the auditor of any error or mis-statement of which the director or officer becomes aware in a financial statement that the auditor or a former auditor has reported on.

Error in financial statements

(7) An auditor or former auditor of a corporation who is notified or becomes aware of an error or mis-statement in a financial statement on which they have reported, if in their opinion the error or mis-statement is material, shall inform each director accordingly.

Duty of directors

(8) When under subsection (7) the auditor or former auditor informs the directors of an error or mis-statement in a financial statement, the directors shall

(a) prepare and issue revised financial statements; or

(b) otherwise inform the shareholders and, if the corporation is one that is required to comply with section 160, it shall inform the Director of the error or mis-statement in the same manner as it informs the shareholders.

Offence

(9) Every director or officer of a corporation who knowingly fails to comply with subsection (6) or (8) is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XX.1 Documents in Electronic or Other Form
Section 252.3

Electronic Documents

Use not mandatory

(1) Nothing in this Act or the regulations requires a person to create or provide an electronic document.

Consent and other requirements

(2) Despite anything in this Part, a requirement under this Act or the regulations to provide a person with a notice, document or other information is not satisfied by the provision of an electronic document unless

(a) the addressee has consented, in the manner prescribed, and has designated an information system for the receipt of the electronic document; and

(b) the electronic document is provided to the designated information system, unless otherwise prescribed.

Revocation of consent

(3) An addressee may revoke the consent referred to in paragraph (2)(a) in the manner prescribed.


Canada Business Corporations Act
Part XX.1 Documents in Electronic or Other Form
Section 252.5

Information in Writing; Copies; Registered Mail

Creation of information in writing

(1) A requirement under this Act or the regulations that a notice, document or other information be created in writing is satisfied by the creation of an electronic document if, in addition to the conditions in section 252.4,

(a) the information in the electronic document is accessible so as to be usable for subsequent reference; and

(b) the regulations pertaining to this subsection, if any, have been complied with.

Provision of information in writing

(2) A requirement under this Act or the regulations that a notice, document or other information be provided in writing is satisfied by the provision of an electronic document if, in addition to the conditions set out in section 252.4,

(a) the information in the electronic document is accessible by the addressee and capable of being retained by the addressee, so as to be usable for subsequent reference; and

(b) the regulations pertaining to this subsection, if any, have been complied with.

Copies

(3) A requirement under this Act or the regulations for one or more copies of a document to be provided to a single addressee at the same time is satisfied by the provision of a single version of the electronic document.

Registered mail

(4) A requirement under this Act or the regulations to provide a document by registered mail is not satisfied by the sending of an electronic document unless prescribed.


Canada Business Corporations Act
CBCA Regulation, Part 1 General: Electronic Documents
Section 7

For the purpose of paragraph 252.3(2)…

(1) For the purpose of paragraph 252.3(2)(a) of the Act, the consent shall be in writing.

(2) For the purpose of paragraph 252.3(2)(b) of the Act, a notice, document or other information that is not required under the Act to be sent to a specific place may be sent as an electronic document to a place other than to an information system designated by the addressee under paragraph 252.3(2)(a) of the Act by posting it on or making it available through a generally accessible electronic source, such as a website, and by providing the addressee with notice in writing of the availability and location of that electronic document.

(3) [Repealed, SOR/2010-128, s. 5]


Canada Business Corporations Act
CBCA Regulation, Part 5 Meetings of Shareholders
Section 43

Record Date

(1) For the purpose of paragraphs 134(1)(a), (b) and (e) of the Act, the prescribed period for the directors to fix the record date is not more than 60 days before the day on which the particular action is to be taken.

(2) For the purposes of paragraphs 134(1)(c) and (d) of the Act, the prescribed period for the directors to fix the record date is not less than 21 days and not more than 60 days before the date of the meeting.

(3) For the purpose of subsection 134(3) of the Act, the prescribed period for the directors to provide notice of the record date is at least seven days before the date fixed.


Canada Business Corporations Act
CBCA Regulation, Part 7 Proxies and Proxy Solicitation
Section 66

Financial Statements in Proxy Circular

(1) If financial statements accompany or form part of a management proxy circular, the statements shall be prepared in the manner described in Part 8. (2) The financial statements referred to in subsection (1), if not reported on by the auditor of the corporation, shall be accompanied by a report of the chief financial officer of the corporation stating that the financial statements have not been audited but have been prepared in the manner described in Part 8.


Canada Business Corporations Act
CBCA Regulation, Part 8 Financial Disclosure
Section 70 Interpretation

SEC registrant

The following definitions apply in this Part:…

SEC registrant means a corporation that

(a) has securities registered under section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 of the United States, as amended from time to time, or is required to file reports under section 15(d) of that Act; and

(b) is not registered or required to be registered as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940 of the United States, as amended from time to time.


Canada Business Corporations Act
CBCA Regulation, Part 8 Financial Disclosure
Section 71

Financial Statements

(1) Subject to subsection (2), the annual financial statements referred to in paragraph 155(1)(a) of the Act shall be prepared in accordance with Canadian GAAP.

(2) For an SEC registrant, the financial statements may be prepared in accordance with US GAAP.

(3) to (6) [Repealed, SOR/2016-98, s. 2]

(7) The financial statements shall contain a note stating whether the statements have been prepared in accordance with Canadian GAAP or US GAAP.

(8) [Repealed, SOR/2016-98, s. 2]

Auditor’s Report

71.1 (1) Subject to subsection (2), the auditor’s report referred to in section 169 of the Act shall be prepared in accordance with Canadian GAAS.

(2) For an SEC registrant that has prepared its financial statements in accordance with US GAAP and whose auditors are in compliance with the professional practice standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States, the auditor’s report may be prepared in accordance with US GAAS.

(3) [Repealed, SOR/2016-98, s. 3]

(4) If the auditor’s report referred to in subsection (2) is prepared in accordance with US GAAS and is for a financial year that begins on or after January 1, 2011, it shall comply with section 3.8 of NI 52-107, but for the purpose of applying that section,

(a) the expression U.S. PCAOB GAAS has the meaning assigned to the expression US GAAS by section 70 of these Regulations; and

(b) the expression SEC issuer has the meaning assigned to the expression SEC registrant by section 70 of these Regulations.


Canada Business Corporations Act
CBCA Regulation, Part 8 Financial Disclosure
Section 71.1

Auditor’s Report

(1) Subject to subsection (2), the auditor’s report referred to in section 169 of the Act shall be prepared in accordance with Canadian GAAS.

(2) For an SEC registrant that has prepared its financial statements in accordance with US GAAP and whose auditors are in compliance with the professional practice standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States, the auditor’s report may be prepared in accordance with US GAAS.

(3) [Repealed, SOR/2016-98, s. 3]

(4) If the auditor’s report referred to in subsection (2) is prepared in accordance with US GAAS and is for a financial year that begins on or after January 1, 2011, it shall comply with section 3.8 of NI 52-107, but for the purpose of applying that section,

(a) the expression U.S. PCAOB GAAS has the meaning assigned to the expression US GAAS by section 70 of these Regulations; and

(b) the expression SEC issuer has the meaning assigned to the expression SEC registrant by section 70 of these Regulations.


Canada Business Corporations Act
CBCA Regulation, Part 8 Financial Disclosure
Section 72

Contents Of Financial Statements

(1) The financial statements referred to in section 155 of the Act shall include at least

(a) a statement of financial position or a balance sheet;

(b) a statement of comprehensive income or an income statement;

(c) a statement of changes in equity or a statement of retained earnings; and

(d) a statement of cash flows or a statement of changes in financial position.

(2) Financial statements need not be designated by the names set out in paragraphs (1)(a) to (d).