CSA Staff Notice 52-306 Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Part II Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Lexata note: This staff notice will soon be replaced by new NI 52-112. See Part 5 of the new rule for transition details.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

For the purpose of this notice, a non-GAAP financial measure is a numerical measure of an issuer’s historical or future financial performance, financial position or cash flow that is not specified, defined or determined under the issuer’s GAAP (as that term is defined in National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards) and is not presented in an issuer’s financial statements. A non-GAAP financial measure excludes amounts that are included in, or includes amounts that are excluded from, the most directly comparable measure specified, defined or determined under the issuer’s GAAP.

Some issuers disclose non-GAAP financial measures in press releases, management’s discussion and analysis, prospectus filings, websites and marketing materials.

Many non-GAAP financial measures are derived from profit or loss determined under an issuer’s GAAP and, by omission of selected items, present a more positive picture of financial performance. Terms used to identify non-GAAP financial measures may include “pro forma earnings”, “cash earnings”, “free cash flow”, “distributable cash”, “Adjusted EBITDA”, “adjusted earnings”, and “earnings before non-recurring items”. Many of these terms lack standard meanings and different issuers may use the same term to refer to different calculations.

Staff is concerned that investors may be confused or even misled by non-GAAP financial measures. Staff is also concerned about the prominence of disclosure given to non-GAAP financial measures related to earnings compared to the prominence of earnings measures specified, defined or determined under an issuer’s GAAP. In staff’s view, these concerns can be addressed by appropriate disclosure accompanying non-GAAP financial measures.

Some issuers disclose performance measures that are calculated without using financial measures (for example, number of units or number of subscribers). Some issuers disclose performance measures that are calculated using financial information presented in the financial statements (for example, sales per square foot, where the sales figure is extracted directly from the financial statements). In both of the preceding scenarios, such performance measures are not considered to be non-GAAP financial measures. However, if a non-GAAP financial measure is used to calculate a performance measure (such as an “adjusted earnings” financial measure used to calculate an “adjusted earnings per unit” measure), then that non-GAAP financial measure should be disclosed and Section III of this notice applies to that non-GAAP financial measure.



CSA Staff Notice 52-306 Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Part III Disclosure Accompanying Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Lexata note: This staff notice will soon be replaced by new NI 52-112. See Part 5 of the new rule for transition details.

Disclosure Accompanying Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Financial statements prepared in accordance with an issuer’s GAAP provide investors with a clear basis for financial analysis and comparison among issuers. Staff recognizes that non-GAAP financial measures may provide investors with additional information to assist them in understanding critical components of an issuer’s financial performance. However, an issuer should not present a non-GAAP financial measure in a way that confuses or obscures the most directly comparable measure specified, defined or determined under the issuer’s GAAP presented in its financial statements.

Staff reminds issuers of their responsibility to ensure that information they provide to the public is not misleading. Staff also reminds certifying officers of their obligations under National Instrument 52-109 Certification of Disclosure in Issuers’ Annual and Interim Filings to make certifications regarding misrepresentations, fair presentation, and disclosure controls and procedures. A non-GAAP financial measure may be misleading if it includes positive components of the most directly comparable measure specified, defined or determined under the issuer’s GAAP presented in its financial statements but omits similar negative components.

In order to ensure that a non-GAAP financial measure does not mislead investors, an issuer should:

  1. state explicitly that the non-GAAP financial measure does not have any standardized meaning under the issuer’s GAAP and therefore may not be comparable to similar measures presented by other issuers;
  2. name the non-GAAP financial measure in a way that distinguishes it from disclosure items specified, defined or determined under an issuer’s GAAP and in a way that is not misleading. For example, in presenting EBITDA as a non-GAAP financial measure, it would be misleading to exclude amounts for items other than interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization;
  3. explain why the non-GAAP financial measure provides useful information to investors and the additional purposes, if any, for which management uses the non-GAAP financial measure;
  4. present with equal or greater prominence to that of the non-GAAP financial measure, the most directly comparable measure specified, defined or determined under the issuer’s GAAP presented in its financial statements;
  5. provide a clear quantitative reconciliation from the non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable measure specified, defined or determined under the issuer’s GAAP and presented in its financial statements, referencing to the reconciliation when the non-GAAP financial measure first appears in the document, or in the case of content on a website, in a manner that meets this objective (for example, by providing a link to the reconciliation);
  6. ensure that the non-GAAP financial measure does not describe adjustments as non-recurring, infrequent or unusual, when a similar loss or gain is reasonably likely to occur within the next two years or occurred during the prior two years; and
  7. present the non-GAAP financial measure on a consistent basis from period to period; however, where an issuer changes the composition of the non-GAAP financial measure, explain the reason for the change and restate any comparative period presented.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Reconciliation
Re ss. 6(1)(e)(ii)(C), 6(2)

Lexata note: This companion policy is not yet effectve. See Part 5 of NI 52-112 for transition details.

Reconciliation of a non-GAAP financial measure

Clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C) of the Instrument requires a quantitative reconciliation between the non-GAAP financial measure and the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements. For the purpose of clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C), a quantitative reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure is required to be the “permitted format” outlined in subsection 6(2) of the Instrument. An issuer may satisfy this requirement by providing a reconciliation in a clearly understandable way, such as a table. For purposes of presenting the reconciliation, an issuer may begin with the non-GAAP financial measure or the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements, provided the reconciliation is presented in an understandable and consistent manner.

Most Directly Comparable Financial Measure

The Instrument does not define the “most directly comparable financial measure” and therefore the issuer needs to apply judgment in determining the most directly comparable financial measure. In applying judgment, it is important for an issuer to consider the context of how the non-GAAP financial measure is used. For example, when the non-GAAP financial measure is discussed primarily as a performance measure used in determining cash generated by the issuer, or the issuer’s distribution-paying capacity, its most directly comparable financial measure will be from the statement of cash flows. In practice, earnings-based measures and cash flow-based measures are used to disclose operational performance. If it is not clear from the way the non-GAAP financial measure is used what the most directly comparable financial measure is, consideration can be given to the nature, number and materiality of the reconciling items.

Reconciling Items

The reconciliation must be quantitative, separately itemizing and explaining each significant reconciling item.

Source of Reconciling Items

When a reconciling item is taken directly from the entity’s financial statements, it should be named such that an investor is able to identify the item in those financial statements, and no further explanation of that reconciling item is required.

When a reconciling item is not extracted directly from the entity’s financial statements, but is, for example, a component of a line item in the entity’s primary financial statements or originates from outside the primary financial statements, disclosure must be provided to satisfy clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C) and subsection 6(2) of the Instrument. Such disclosure should identify the source of the reconciling item (e.g., the financial statement line item, the financial statement note, or the externally sourced document), if not obvious, and should explain how the amount is calculated, including a discussion of any significant judgments or estimates management has made in developing the reconciling items used in the reconciliation.

Entity-Specific Inputs

Reconciling items should be calculated using entity-specific inputs. An entity may make adjustments that are accepted within an industry; however, the quantum of these adjustments should be calculated using entity-specific information. For example, an entity may make an adjustment for operating capital expenditures, which is a standard adjustment in certain industries, but the amount of the adjustment should be calculated based on the entity’s operating capital expenditures, and not by using only an ‘industry average’ amount as the sole factor. However, adjustments should be supportable and consistent with the usefulness explanation provided to address clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(B) of the Instrument.

Level of Detail

The level of detail expected in the reconciliation depends on the nature and complexity of the reconciling items. The adjustments made from the most directly comparable financial measure should be consistent with the explanation required by clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(B) of the Instrument regarding why the information is useful to investors and if applicable, how it is used by management. Explanations should be more detailed than merely stating what the reconciling item represents and should also cover the circumstances that give rise to the particular adjustment if it is not obvious.

An “other” or “adjusting items” category to describe numerous insignificant reconciling items should not be used without further explanation as to the nature of items that comprise the category.

Gross Basis

Issuers should consider significant reconciling items on a gross basis. For example, an issuer is expected to separately itemize positive and negative adjustments unless netting is permitted under the financial reporting framework used in the preparation of the financial statements.

Tax

Reconciling items are commonly presented on a pre-tax basis to ensure that investors understand the gross amount of each reconciling item. If an issuer chooses to present reconciling items on a post-tax basis then the tax effect for each reconciling item should also be disclosed.

Comparatives

For comparative non-GAAP financial measures disclosed for a previous period under paragraph 6(1)(f) of the Instrument, a reconciliation to the corresponding most directly comparable financial measure is required for that previous period.

Presentation in the Form of a Primary Financial Statement

An issuer may present adjusted financial information outside the entity’s financial statements using a format that is similar to one or more of the primary financial statements, but that is not in accordance with the financial reporting framework used to prepare the entity’s financial statements. In this case, the adjusted financial information would contain non-GAAP financial measures. Specifically, this would arise if an issuer presents such financial measures in a form that is similar to the following financial statements:

  • A statement of financial position;
  • A statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income;
  • A statement of changes in equity; or
  • A statement of cash flows.

Presentation of this information as a single column that excludes the most directly comparable financial measures in a separate column would not satisfy clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C) and subsection 6(2) of the Instrument. However, this information may be presented in the form of a reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure if such presentation shows in separate columns each of the most directly comparable financial measures, the reconciling items, and the non-GAAP financial measures. An example of the separate column approach may be used when issuers with joint ventures present a full set of non-GAAP financial statements in the form of a columnar reconciliation that shows the issuer’s statement of income as presented in the primary financial statements, an additional column with amounts related to equity accounted investees for each financial statement line item, and then a total column for each financial statement line item, which would be appropriately labelled as non-GAAP financial measures for each financial statement line item. This effectively creates the presentation of a full set of non-GAAP financial statements.

When the adjusted presentation is used as a basis for the qualitative discussions and analysis of an entity’s financial performance, financial position or cash flows with greater prominence than financial measures presented in the primary financial statements, this would not be considered to be in compliance with the prominence requirement in paragraph 6(1)(d) of the Instrument.



Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are forward-looking Information
Re ss. 7(2)(c)

Lexata note: This companion policy is not yet effectve. See Part 5 of NI 52-112 for transition details.

Prominence of a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information

The Instrument requires a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information to be presented with no more prominence in the document than that of the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure disclosed. This means that the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information must be presented with no more prominence than that of the most directly comparable financial measure that is presented in the primary financial statements, as required by paragraph 6(1)(d) of the Instrument.



Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Prominence of similar financial measures
Re ss. 8(b) and 10(1)(a)

Lexata note: This companion policy is not yet effectve. See Part 5 of NI 52-112 for transition details.

Prominence of similar financial measures

The prominence requirements in paragraphs 8(b) and 10(1)(a) of the Instrument for non-GAAP ratios and capital management measures differ from the requirements for non-GAAP financial measures in paragraph 6(1)(d) and the requirements for total of segments measures in paragraph 9(b). However, the principle that the non-GAAP ratios and capital management measures should be presented with no more prominence than that of measures from the primary financial statements remains the same.

Many non-GAAP ratios and capital management measures do not have a most directly comparable financial measure. As such, issuers should consider the disclosure of the non-GAAP ratio and capital management measure in relation to the overall disclosure of similar financial measures presented in the primary financial statements to which the non-GAAP ratio or the capital management measure relates. For example, the prominence requirement in paragraph 8(b) of the Instrument is not met if the issuer focused its disclosure on an increased gross margin percentage without giving at least equally prominent disclosure to the fact that sales have significantly decreased over the same time period, resulting in a reduction in total profit period over period. In this example, it is assumed that the financial measure of “gross margin” is not presented in the primary financial statements and therefore meets the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure. As a further example, the discussion of a “total cash cost per ounce” financial measure should not be more prominent than the discussion of cost of sales, the similar financial measure presented in the primary financial statements to which the non-GAAP ratio relates.

An issuer that discloses a capital management measure such as “adjusted debt will meet the requirement in paragraph 10(1)(a) by giving at least equally prominent disclosure to similar financial measures presented in the primary financial statements such as short-term and long-term debt.

For a non-GAAP ratio or a capital management measure which has a most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements, the guidance on prominence contained in this Policy for paragraph 6(1)(d) should be referred to. For example, the most directly comparable financial measure of “adjusted earnings per share” is “earnings per share” and we expect that the discussion of “adjusted earnings per share” should not be more prominent than the discussion of “earnings per share”.



Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are historical information
Re ss. 6(1)(b)

Lexata note: This companion policy is not yet effectve. See Part 5 of NI 52-112 for transition details.

Identification of a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information

An issuer may satisfy the paragraph 6(1)(b) identification requirement by inserting a footnote to the non-GAAP financial measure that is disclosed in the document, with a statement similar to the following: “This is a non-GAAP financial measure. Refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section of this document for more information on each non-GAAP financial measure”.

The issuer should exercise judgement in assessing whether the non-GAAP financial measure should be identified with a footnote each time the measure is disclosed in the document, considering the nature and extent of the use of this measure.



Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are historical information
Re ss. 6(1)(d)

Lexata note: This companion policy is not yet effectve. See Part 5 of NI 52-112 for transition details.

Prominence of a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information

Determining the relative prominence of a non-GAAP financial measure is a matter of judgment, involving consideration of the overall disclosure and the facts and circumstances in which the disclosure is made.

The presentation of a non-GAAP financial measure should not in any way confuse or obscure the presentation of the most directly comparable financial measure that is presented in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates.

The following are examples that would cause a non-GAAP financial measure to be more prominent than the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements:

  • Presenting a non-GAAP financial measure in the form of a statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income without presenting it in the form of a reconciliation to the most directly comparable financial measure, sometimes referred to as a “single column approach”;
  • Omitting the most directly comparable financial measure from a news release headline or caption that includes a non-GAAP financial measure;
  • Presenting a non-GAAP financial measure using a style of presentation (e.g., bold, underlined, italicized, or larger font) that emphasizes the non-GAAP financial measure over the most directly comparable financial measure;
  • Multiple non-GAAP financial measures being used for the same or similar purpose thereby obscuring disclosure of the most directly comparable financial measure;
  • Providing tabular or graphical disclosure of non-GAAP financial measures without presenting an equally prominent tabular or graphical disclosure of the most directly comparable financial measures; and
  • Providing a discussion and analysis of a non-GAAP financial measure in a more prominent location than a similar discussion and analysis of the most directly comparable financial measure. For greater certainty, a location is not more prominent if it allows an investor who reads the document, or other material containing the non-GAAP financial measure, to be able to view the discussion and analysis of both the non-GAAP financial measure and the most directly comparable financial measure contemporaneously (e.g., within the previous, same or next page of the document).

The above list is not exhaustive.

The Instrument requires that the non-GAAP financial measure be presented with “no more prominence in the document than that of the most directly comparable financial measure” presented in the primary financial statements. If the most directly comparable financial measure is presented with “equal or greater prominence” than the non-GAAP financial measure, the requirement under paragraph 6(1)(d) of the Instrument has been met.



Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Proximity, composition and usefulness
Re ss. 6(1)(e), 7(2)(d), 8(c), 9(c), 10(1)(b), 11(b)

Lexata note: This companion policy is not yet effectve. See Part 5 of NI 52-112 for transition details.

Proximity to the first instance

To prevent duplicative disclosure, an issuer may include the information required by paragraphs 6(1)(e), 7(2)(d), 8(c), 9(c), 10(1)(b), 11(b) of the Instrument in one section of the document, unless incorporation by reference is permitted under section 5 of the Instrument. To satisfy these requirements, when the specified financial measure first appears in the document an issuer may reference, either through a footnote or in another manner, a separate section within the same document that contains the disclosure required by these paragraphs.

There may be types of documents where it is not clear when the specified financial measure first occurs or appears, for example, websites and social media. In these instances, the “first instance” disclosure requirements may be satisfied by providing a website hyperlink to where the disclosures required by paragraphs 6(1)(e), 7(2)(d), 8(c), 9(c), 10(1)(b), 11(b) of the Instrument are found (e.g., on another section of the website) with minimal to no scrolling or navigation. Hyperlinking may only be provided within a website or within a document.



National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 10

Lexata note: This national instrument is not yet effective. See Part 5 for transition details.

Capital management measures

(1) An issuer must not disclose a capital management measure in a document, other than financial statements about the entity to which the measure relates, unless all of the following apply:

(a) the capital management measure is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of similar financial measures disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity;

(b) in proximity to the first instance of the capital management measure in the document, the document,

(i) if the capital management measure was calculated using one or more non-GAAP financial measures, discloses each such non-GAAP financial measure;

(ii) discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5,

(A) for any capital management measure that is disclosed in the form of a ratio, fraction, percentage or similar representation, an explanation of its composition,

(B) an explanation of how the capital management measure provides useful information to an investor and explains the additional purposes, if any, for which management uses the capital management measure, and

(C) for any capital management measure that is not disclosed as a ratio, fraction, percentage or similar representation, a quantitative reconciliation of the capital management measure for its current and comparative period, if disclosed under paragraph (c), to the most directly comparable financial measure disclosed in the primary financial statements of the issuer;

(c) if the capital management measure is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the capital management measure for a comparative period, determined using the same composition, is disclosed in the document, unless it has not been previously disclosed.

(2) Subparagraph (1)(b)(ii) does not apply if the disclosure required under that subparagraph is made in the notes to the financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates.



National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 9

Lexata note: This national instrument is not yet effective. See Part 5 for transition details.

Total of segments measures

An issuer must not disclose a total of segments measure in a document, other than in financial statements about the entity to which the measure relates, unless all of the following apply:

(a) the document discloses the most directly comparable financial measure disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity;

(b) the total of segments measure is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (a);

(c) in proximity to the first instance of the total of segments measure in the document, the document discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5, a quantitative reconciliation of the total of segments measure for its current and comparative period, if disclosed under paragraph (d), to the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (a), in the permitted format referred to in subsection 6(2);

(d) if the total of segments measure is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the total of segments measure for a comparative period, determined using the same composition, is disclosed in the document, unless it has not been previously disclosed.



National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 8

Lexata note: This national instrument is not yet effective. See Part 5 for transition details.

Non-GAAP ratios

An issuer must not disclose a non-GAAP ratio in a document unless all of the following apply:

(a) the non-GAAP ratio is labelled using a term that, given the non-GAAP ratio’s composition, describes the non-GAAP ratio;

(b) the non-GAAP ratio is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of similar financial measures disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the non-GAAP ratio relates;

(c) in proximity to the first instance of the non-GAAP ratio in the document, the document

(i) explains that the non-GAAP ratio is not a standardized financial measure under the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements of the entity to which the non-GAAP ratio relates and might not be comparable to similar financial measures disclosedby other issuers,

(ii) discloses each non-GAAP financial measure that is used as a component of the non-GAAP ratio,

(iii) discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5, an explanation of

(A) the composition of the non-GAAP ratio,

(B) how the non-GAAP ratio provides useful information to an investor and explains the additional purposes, if any, for which management uses the non-GAAP ratio, and

(C) if the label or the composition of the non-GAAP ratio has changed from what was previously disclosed, an explanation of the reason for the change;

(d) if the non-GAAP ratio is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the non-GAAP ratio for a comparative period, determined using the same means of calculation, is disclosed in the document, unless

(i) the non-GAAP ratio is forward-looking information, or

(ii) it is impracticable to disclose the measure for the comparative period.



National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 7

Lexata note: This national instrument is not yet effective. See Part 5 for transition details.

Non-GAAP financial measures that are forward-looking information

(1) In this section,

“equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure” means a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information and has the same composition as a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information;

SEC issuer” has the meaning ascribed to it in National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards.

(2) An issuer must not disclose a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-lookinginformation in a document unless all of the following apply:

(a) the document discloses an equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure;

(b) the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information is labelled using the same label used for the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure;

(c) the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information ispresented with no more prominence in the document than that of the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure;

(d) in proximity to the first instance of the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information in the document, the document discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5, a description of any significant difference between the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information and the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure.

(3) Subsection (2) does not apply if the disclosure is made

(a) by an SEC issuer, and

(b) in compliance with Regulation G under the 1934 Act.



National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 6

Lexata note: This national instrument is not yet effective. See Part 5 for transition details.

Non-GAAP financial measures that are historical information

(1) An issuer must not disclose a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information in a document unless all of the following apply:

(a) the non-GAAP financial measure is labelled using a term that,

(i) given the measure’s composition, describes the measure, and

(ii) distinguishes the measure from totals, subtotals and line items disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates;

(b) the non-GAAP financial measure is identified as a non-GAAP financial measure;

(c) the document discloses the most directly comparable financial measure that is disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates;

(d) the non-GAAP financial measure is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (c);

(e) in proximity to the first instance of the non-GAAP financial measure in the document, the document

(i) explains that the non-GAAP financial measure is not a standardized financial measure under the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates and might not be comparable to similar financial measures disclosed by other issuers,

(ii) discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5,

(A) an explanation of the composition of the non-GAAP financial measure,

(B) an explanation of how the non-GAAP financial measure provides useful information to an investor and explains the additional purposes, if any, for which management uses the non-GAAP financial measure,

(C) a quantitative reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure for its current and comparative period, if disclosed under paragraph (f), to the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (c), and that reconciliation is disclosed in the permitted format, and

(D) if the label or composition of the non-GAAP financial measure has changed from what was previously disclosed, an explanation of the reason for the change;

(f) if the non-GAAP financial measure is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the non-GAAP financial measure for a comparative period, determined using the same composition, is disclosed in the document, unless it is impracticable to do so.

(2) For the purpose of clause (1)(e)(ii)(C), a quantitative reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure is in the “permitted format” if it

(a) is disaggregated quantitatively in a way that would enable a reasonable personapplying a reasonable effort to understand the reconciling items,

(b) explains each reconciling item, and

(c) does not describe a reconciling item as “non-recurring”, “infrequent”, “unusual”, or using a similar term, if a loss or gain of a similar nature is reasonably likely to occur within the entity’s 2 financial years that immediately follow the disclosure, or has occurred during the entity’s 2 financial years that immediately precede the disclosure.