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Q: What do non-gaap measures get reconciled to?

A: Non-GAAP measures are reconciled to the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements. The issuer needs to apply judgment in determining the most directly comparable financial measure, considering the context of how the non-GAAP financial measure is used. For instance, if the non-GAAP measure is used primarily as a performance measure for determining cash generated by the issuer, its most directly comparable financial measure will be from the statement of cash flows.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 6

Non-GAAP financial measures that are historical information

(1) An issuer must not disclose a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information in a document unless all of the following apply:

(a) the non-GAAP financial measure is labelled using a term that,

(i) given the measure’s composition, describes the measure, and

(ii) distinguishes the measure from totals, subtotals and line items disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates;

(b) the non-GAAP financial measure is identified as a non-GAAP financial measure;

(c) the document discloses the most directly comparable financial measure that is disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates;

(d) the non-GAAP financial measure is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (c);

(e) in proximity to the first instance of the non-GAAP financial measure in the document, the document

(i) explains that the non-GAAP financial measure is not a standardized financial measure under the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates and might not be comparable to similar financial measures disclosed by other issuers,

(ii) discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5,

(A) an explanation of the composition of the non-GAAP financial measure,

(B) an explanation of how the non-GAAP financial measure provides useful information to an investor and explains the additional purposes, if any, for which management uses the non-GAAP financial measure,

(C) a quantitative reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure for its current and comparative period, if disclosed under paragraph (f), to the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (c), and that reconciliation is disclosed in the permitted format, and

(D) if the label or composition of the non-GAAP financial measure has changed from what was previously disclosed, an explanation of the reason for the change;

(f) if the non-GAAP financial measure is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the non-GAAP financial measure for a comparative period, determined using the same composition, is disclosed in the document, unless it is impracticable to do so.

(2) For the purpose of clause (1)(e)(ii)(C), a quantitative reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure is in the “permitted format” if it

(a) is disaggregated quantitatively in a way that would enable a reasonable personapplying a reasonable effort to understand the reconciling items,

(b) explains each reconciling item, and

(c) does not describe a reconciling item as “non-recurring”, “infrequent”, “unusual”, or using a similar term, if a loss or gain of a similar nature is reasonably likely to occur within the entity’s 2 financial years that immediately follow the disclosure, or has occurred during the entity’s 2 financial years that immediately precede the disclosure.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Reconciliation
Re ss. 6(1)(e)(ii)(C), 6(2)

Reconciliation of a non-GAAP financial measure

Clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C) of the Instrument requires a quantitative reconciliation between the non-GAAP financial measure and the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements. For the purpose of clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C), a quantitative reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure is required to be the “permitted format” outlined in subsection 6(2) of the Instrument. An issuer may satisfy this requirement by providing a reconciliation in a clearly understandable way, such as a table. For purposes of presenting the reconciliation, an issuer may begin with the non-GAAP financial measure or the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements, provided the reconciliation is presented in an understandable and consistent manner.

Most Directly Comparable Financial Measure

The Instrument does not define the “most directly comparable financial measure” and therefore the issuer needs to apply judgment in determining the most directly comparable financial measure. In applying judgment, it is important for an issuer to consider the context of how the non-GAAP financial measure is used. For example, when the non-GAAP financial measure is discussed primarily as a performance measure used in determining cash generated by the issuer, or the issuer’s distribution-paying capacity, its most directly comparable financial measure will be from the statement of cash flows. In practice, earnings-based measures and cash flow-based measures are used to disclose operational performance. If it is not clear from the way the non-GAAP financial measure is used what the most directly comparable financial measure is, consideration can be given to the nature, number and materiality of the reconciling items.

Reconciling Items

The reconciliation must be quantitative, separately itemizing and explaining each significant reconciling item.

Source of Reconciling Items

When a reconciling item is taken directly from the entity’s financial statements, it should be named such that an investor is able to identify the item in those financial statements, and no further explanation of that reconciling item is required.

When a reconciling item is not extracted directly from the entity’s financial statements, but is, for example, a component of a line item in the entity’s primary financial statements or originates from outside the primary financial statements, disclosure must be provided to satisfy clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C) and subsection 6(2) of the Instrument. Such disclosure should identify the source of the reconciling item (e.g., the financial statement line item, the financial statement note, or the externally sourced document), if not obvious, and should explain how the amount is calculated, including a discussion of any significant judgments or estimates management has made in developing the reconciling items used in the reconciliation.

Entity-Specific Inputs

Reconciling items should be calculated using entity-specific inputs. An entity may make adjustments that are accepted within an industry; however, the quantum of these adjustments should be calculated using entity-specific information. For example, an entity may make an adjustment for operating capital expenditures, which is a standard adjustment in certain industries, but the amount of the adjustment should be calculated based on the entity’s operating capital expenditures, and not by using only an ‘industry average’ amount as the sole factor. However, adjustments should be supportable and consistent with the usefulness explanation provided to address clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(B) of the Instrument.

Level of Detail

The level of detail expected in the reconciliation depends on the nature and complexity of the reconciling items. The adjustments made from the most directly comparable financial measure should be consistent with the explanation required by clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(B) of the Instrument regarding why the information is useful to investors and if applicable, how it is used by management. Explanations should be more detailed than merely stating what the reconciling item represents and should also cover the circumstances that give rise to the particular adjustment if it is not obvious.

An “other” or “adjusting items” category to describe numerous insignificant reconciling items should not be used without further explanation as to the nature of items that comprise the category.

Gross Basis

Issuers should consider significant reconciling items on a gross basis. For example, an issuer is expected to separately itemize positive and negative adjustments unless netting is permitted under the financial reporting framework used in the preparation of the financial statements.

Tax

Reconciling items are commonly presented on a pre-tax basis to ensure that investors understand the gross amount of each reconciling item. If an issuer chooses to present reconciling items on a post-tax basis then the tax effect for each reconciling item should also be disclosed.

Comparatives

For comparative non-GAAP financial measures disclosed for a previous period under paragraph 6(1)(f) of the Instrument, a reconciliation to the corresponding most directly comparable financial measure is required for that previous period.

Presentation in the Form of a Primary Financial Statement

An issuer may present adjusted financial information outside the entity’s financial statements using a format that is similar to one or more of the primary financial statements, but that is not in accordance with the financial reporting framework used to prepare the entity’s financial statements. In this case, the adjusted financial information would contain non-GAAP financial measures. Specifically, this would arise if an issuer presents such financial measures in a form that is similar to the following financial statements:

  • A statement of financial position;
  • A statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income;
  • A statement of changes in equity; or
  • A statement of cash flows.

Presentation of this information as a single column that excludes the most directly comparable financial measures in a separate column would not satisfy clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C) and subsection 6(2) of the Instrument. However, this information may be presented in the form of a reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure if such presentation shows in separate columns each of the most directly comparable financial measures, the reconciling items, and the non-GAAP financial measures. An example of the separate column approach may be used when issuers with joint ventures present a full set of non-GAAP financial statements in the form of a columnar reconciliation that shows the issuer’s statement of income as presented in the primary financial statements, an additional column with amounts related to equity accounted investees for each financial statement line item, and then a total column for each financial statement line item, which would be appropriately labelled as non-GAAP financial measures for each financial statement line item. This effectively creates the presentation of a full set of non-GAAP financial statements.

When the adjusted presentation is used as a basis for the qualitative discussions and analysis of an entity’s financial performance, financial position or cash flows with greater prominence than financial measures presented in the primary financial statements, this would not be considered to be in compliance with the prominence requirement in paragraph 6(1)(d) of the Instrument.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are historical information
Re ss. 6(1)(a)

Labelling a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information

Any label or term used to describe a non-GAAP financial measure, or adjustments in a reconciliation, must be appropriate given the nature of information.

For example, the following are not in compliance with the labelling requirement in paragraph 6(1)(a) of the Instrument:

  • Labels that are the same as, or confusingly similar to, those normally used under the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements. For example, a measure labelled “cash flows from operations” and calculated as cash flows from operating activities before changes in non-cash working capital items is confusingly similar to the term “cash flows from operating activities” specified in IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows;
  • Labels that purport to represent “results from operating activities” or a similar title but exclude items of an operating nature, such as inventory write-downs, restructuring costs, impairment of assets used for operations and stock-based compensation;
  • Labels that are overly optimistic (e.g., guaranteed profit or protected returns); and
  • Labels that may cause confusion based on the financial measure’s composition. For example, in presenting EBITDA as a non-GAAP financial measure, it would be inappropriate to exclude amounts for items other than interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization.

The above list is not exhaustive.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP ratios
Re ss. 8(c)(ii)

Subparagraph 8(c)(ii) – Disclosure of each non-GAAP financial measure that is used as a component of the non-GAAP ratio

For a non-GAAP ratio that is calculated using one or more non-GAAP financial measures, the issuer must disclose each non-GAAP financial measure and comply with section 6 of the Instrument in respect of each non-GAAP financial measure used in the calculation of the non-GAAP ratio.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 1 Definitions and Application
Section 1

non-GAAP financial measure

non-GAAP financial measure” means a financial measure disclosed by an issuer that

(a) depicts the historical or expected future financial performance, financial position or cash flow of an entity,

(b) with respect to its composition, excludes an amount that is included in, or includes an amount that is excluded from, the composition of the most directly comparable financial measure disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity,

(c) is not disclosed in the financial statements of the entity, and

(d) is not a ratio, fraction, percentage or similar representation;


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Reasons for changes
Re ss. 6(1)(e)(ii)(D) and 8(c)(iii)(C)

Explanation of the reason for the change in a non-GAAP financial measure or a non-GAAP ratio

If the label or composition of the non-GAAP financial measure or non-GAAP ratio has changed from what was previously disclosed, the requirement of clauses 6(1)(e)(ii)(D) and 8(c)(iii)(C) of the Instrument would apply.

Including additional reconciling items or excluding previously included reconciling items between the non-GAAP financial measure and the most directly comparable financial measure constitutes a change in composition. A clear explanation of the reason for this change is required under clauses 6(1)(e)(ii)(D) and 8(c)(iii)(C) of the Instrument, which would include a restatement of comparatives, when disclosed as required under paragraph 6(1)(f) or 8(d).

A change in magnitude of an individual item would not constitute a change in composition. For example, an issuer may define adjusted earnings as earnings before impairment losses and transaction costs. Transaction costs may only be incurred every three years, such that there may be no adjustment in year two to reflect transaction costs, but there should be an explanation noting that the issuer expects that it will incur transaction costs in the future. In this example, the issuer should continue to include transaction costs in the explanation of the composition under clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(A) or 8(c)(iii)(A) to maintain consistency of the non-GAAP financial measure or non-GAAP ratio.

Given that disclosure of non-GAAP financial measures and non-GAAP ratios is optional, disclosing a particular non-GAAP financial measure or non-GAAP ratio does not create an obligation to continue disclosing that measure in future periods. If, however, an issuer replaces a non-GAAP financial measure or a non-GAAP ratio with another measure or ratio, fraction or similar representation that achieves the same objectives (that is, the usefulness information provided to comply with clauses 6(1)(e)(ii)(B) and 8(c)(iii)(B) of the Instrument was consistent for both measures), the requirement of clauses 6(1)(e)(ii)(D) and 8(c)(iii)(C) of the Instrument would apply.

If the label of a non-GAAP financial measure or non-GAAP ratio has changed, while the explanation for the change may be incorporated by reference, we expect the issuer to make it clear in the document that the label has changed in the current period from that disclosed in the prior period.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are historical information
Re ss. 6(1)(d)

Prominence of a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information

Determining the relative prominence of a non-GAAP financial measure is a matter of judgment, involving consideration of the overall disclosure and the facts and circumstances in which the disclosure is made.

The presentation of a non-GAAP financial measure should not in any way confuse or obscure the presentation of the most directly comparable financial measure that is presented in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates.

The following are examples that would cause a non-GAAP financial measure to be more prominent than the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements:

  • Presenting a non-GAAP financial measure in the form of a statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income without presenting it in the form of a reconciliation to the most directly comparable financial measure, sometimes referred to as a “single column approach”;
  • Omitting the most directly comparable financial measure from a news release headline or caption that includes a non-GAAP financial measure;
  • Presenting a non-GAAP financial measure using a style of presentation (e.g., bold, underlined, italicized, or larger font) that emphasizes the non-GAAP financial measure over the most directly comparable financial measure;
  • Multiple non-GAAP financial measures being used for the same or similar purpose thereby obscuring disclosure of the most directly comparable financial measure;
  • Providing tabular or graphical disclosure of non-GAAP financial measures without presenting an equally prominent tabular or graphical disclosure of the most directly comparable financial measures; and
  • Providing a discussion and analysis of a non-GAAP financial measure in a more prominent location than a similar discussion and analysis of the most directly comparable financial measure. For greater certainty, a location is not more prominent if it allows an investor who reads the document, or other material containing the non-GAAP financial measure, to be able to view the discussion and analysis of both the non-GAAP financial measure and the most directly comparable financial measure contemporaneously (e.g., within the previous, same or next page of the document).

The above list is not exhaustive.

The Instrument requires that the non-GAAP financial measure be presented with “no more prominence in the document than that of the most directly comparable financial measure” presented in the primary financial statements. If the most directly comparable financial measure is presented with “equal or greater prominence” than the non-GAAP financial measure, the requirement under paragraph 6(1)(d) of the Instrument has been met.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are historical information
Re ss. 6(1)(b)

Identification of a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information

An issuer may satisfy the paragraph 6(1)(b) identification requirement by inserting a footnote to the non-GAAP financial measure that is disclosed in the document, with a statement similar to the following: “This is a non-GAAP financial measure. Refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section of this document for more information on each non-GAAP financial measure”.

The issuer should exercise judgement in assessing whether the non-GAAP financial measure should be identified with a footnote each time the measure is disclosed in the document, considering the nature and extent of the use of this measure.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 8

Non-GAAP Ratios

An issuer must not disclose a non-GAAP ratio in a document unless all of the following apply:

(a) the non-GAAP ratio is labelled using a term that, given the non-GAAP ratio’s composition, describes the nonGAAP ratio;

(b) the non-GAAP ratio is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of similar financial measures disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the non-GAAP ratio relates;

(c) in proximity to the first instance of the non-GAAP ratio in the document, the document

(i) explains that the non-GAAP ratio is not a standardized financial measure under the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements of the entity to which the non-GAAP ratio relates and might not be comparable to similar financial measures disclosed by other issuers,

(ii) discloses each non-GAAP financial measure that is used as a component of the non-GAAP ratio,

(iii) discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5, an explanation of

(A) the composition of the non-GAAP ratio,

(B) how the non-GAAP ratio provides useful information to an investor and explains the additional
purposes, if any, for which management uses the non-GAAP ratio, and

(C) if the label or the composition of the non-GAAP ratio has changed from what was previously
disclosed, an explanation of the reason for the change;

(d) if the non-GAAP ratio is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the non-GAAP ratio for a comparative period, determined using the same means of calculation, is disclosed in the document, unless

(i) the non-GAAP ratio is forward-looking information, or

(ii) it is impracticable to disclose the measure for the comparative period.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are forward-looking Information
Re ss. 7(2)(a)

Equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure

Under paragraph 7(2)(a) of the Instrument, an issuer must disclose, in the same document where the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information is disclosed, the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure. The issuer must also comply with section 6 of the Instrument in respect of the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure disclosed.

The equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure must have the same composition as a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information. For example, adjusted EBITDA would be the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure of forward-looking adjusted EBITDA.

Determining the relevant historical period to satisfy the requirement in paragraph 7(2)(a) of the Instrument is a matter of judgment, considering the time period covered by the forward-looking information and the extent to which the business of the issuer is cyclical or seasonal. For example, when an issuer discloses forward-looking information for the three months ending June 30, 20X2, the relevant period for the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure may be:


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Prominence of similar financial measures
Re ss. 8(b) and 10(1)(a)

Prominence of similar financial measures

The prominence requirements in paragraphs 8(b) and 10(1)(a) of the Instrument for non-GAAP ratios and capital management measures differ from the requirements for non-GAAP financial measures in paragraph 6(1)(d) and the requirements for total of segments measures in paragraph 9(b). However, the principle that the non-GAAP ratios and capital management measures should be presented with no more prominence than that of measures from the primary financial statements remains the same.

Many non-GAAP ratios and capital management measures do not have a most directly comparable financial measure. As such, issuers should consider the disclosure of the non-GAAP ratio and capital management measure in relation to the overall disclosure of similar financial measures presented in the primary financial statements to which the non-GAAP ratio or the capital management measure relates. For example, the prominence requirement in paragraph 8(b) of the Instrument is not met if the issuer focused its disclosure on an increased gross margin percentage without giving at least equally prominent disclosure to the fact that sales have significantly decreased over the same time period, resulting in a reduction in total profit period over period. In this example, it is assumed that the financial measure of “gross margin” is not presented in the primary financial statements and therefore meets the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure. As a further example, the discussion of a “total cash cost per ounce” financial measure should not be more prominent than the discussion of cost of sales, the similar financial measure presented in the primary financial statements to which the non-GAAP ratio relates.

An issuer that discloses a capital management measure such as “adjusted debt will meet the requirement in paragraph 10(1)(a) by giving at least equally prominent disclosure to similar financial measures presented in the primary financial statements such as short-term and long-term debt.

For a non-GAAP ratio or a capital management measure which has a most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements, the guidance on prominence contained in this Policy for paragraph 6(1)(d) should be referred to. For example, the most directly comparable financial measure of “adjusted earnings per share” is “earnings per share” and we expect that the discussion of “adjusted earnings per share” should not be more prominent than the discussion of “earnings per share”.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Definitions
Re s. 1

Definition of a non-GAAP financial measure

Common terms used to identify non-GAAP financial measures include “adjusted earnings”, “adjusted EBITDA”, “free cash flow”, “pro forma earnings”, “cash earnings”, “distributable cash”, “adjusted funds from operations”, “earnings before non-recurring items” and measures presented on a constant-currency basis. Many of these terms lack standard meanings. Issuers across a spectrum of industries, and within the same industry, may use the same term to refer to different compositions.

The following are examples of measures that are not captured by the definition:

  • Amounts that do not depict historical or future “financial performance”, “financial position” or “cash flow”, which relate to elements of the primary financial statements as defined in the Instrument, such as share price, market capitalization, or credit rating;
  • Financial information that does not have the effect of providing a financial measure that is different from a financial measure presented in the primary financial statements, such as the addition or subtraction of an identical line item, or a subtotal or total originating from multiple periods of primary financial statements. For example, rolling 12-month results or fourth quarter revenue calculated by subtracting year-to-date third quarter revenue from the annual revenue presented in primary financial statements; or
  • A financial measure which does not exclude an amount that is included in, or include an amount that is excluded from, the composition of the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements of the entity. For example, assets under management representing the total market value of invested assets managed by the issuer which are beneficially owned by clients and not reported in the primary financial statements of the issuer.

Component Information

When an issuer presents a financial statement line item in a more granular way outside the financial statements, otherwise known as a disaggregation, that number is a component of a line item that has been calculated in accordance with the accounting policies used to prepare the line item presented in the financial statements. Such a financial measure would not be a non-GAAP financial measure because it is not a financial measure which excludes an amount that is included in, or includes an amount that is excluded from, the composition of the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements of the entity. However, even though such a measure would not be a non-GAAP financial measure, it may still meet the definition of a supplementary financial measure.

For example, an issuer may disclose sales per square foot on a periodic basis to depict its financial performance. When the sales figure, included in sales per square foot, is extracted directly from the primary financial statements or is a component of such line item (when the component is calculated in accordance with the issuer’s accounting policies used to prepare the line item presented in the financial statements), the “sales per square foot” measure would not meet the definition of a non-GAAP ratio but would meet the definition of a supplementary financial measure. However, if the sales figure is not calculated in accordance with the issuer’s accounting policies, the “sales per square foot” measure in this example would meet the definition of a non-GAAP ratio.

Combinations of Line Items

A financial measure calculated by combining financial information that originates from different line items from the primary financial statements would meet the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure if the measure depicts financial performance, financial position or cash flow, unless that resulting measure is separately disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures that are Forward-looking Information

Forward-looking information for which there is an equivalent historical financial measure disclosed in the financial statements does not meet the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure. Therefore, section 7 of the Instrument does not apply to measures such as future capital management measures and future total of segments measures.

In addition, if, for example, revenue is disclosed on a forward-looking basis using the accounting policies applied by the issuer in its latest set of financial statements (i.e., revenue as presented in the primary financial statements adjusted only for assumptions about future economic conditions and courses of action), this forward-looking revenue is not a non-GAAP financial measure. Conversely, if an issuer discloses EBITDA on a forward-looking basis and does not disclose this financial measure in the financial statements, this forward-looking EBITDA does meet the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information.

Issuers are reminded that forward-looking information is subject to the disclosure requirements in Parts 4A and 4B and section 5.8 of National Instrument 51-102 Continuous Disclosure Obligations (“NI 51-102”).

Non-Financial Information

For clarity, the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure does not include non-financial information such as the following:

  • Number of units;
  • Number of subscribers;
  • Volumetric information;
  • Number of employees or workforce by type of contract or geographical location;
  • Environmental measures such as greenhouse gas emissions;
  • Information on major shareholdings;
  • Acquisition or disposal of the issuer’s own shares; and
  • Total number of voting rights.

The above list is not exhaustive.

We remind issuers that while non-financial information is not subject to the requirements of the Instrument, non-financial information is subject to various disclosure requirements under applicable securities legislation, including the requirement not to disclose misleading information.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Capital management measures
Re s. 10

Disclosure of capital management measures

Disclosure of information that enables an individual to evaluate an entity’s objectives, policies and processes for managing capital may be required by the financial reporting framework used in the preparation of the financial statements; for example, requirements in IFRS under IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements.

How an entity manages its capital is entity-specific and the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements might not prescribe a specific calculation. The accompanying disclosure required by section 10 of the Instrument allows a reader to understand how an entity calculates these capital management measures and how they relate to measures presented in the entity’s primary financial statements when these measures are disclosed in documents other than the financial statements.

A capital management measure does not include a component of a financial statement line item for which the component has been calculated in accordance with the accounting policies used to prepare the line item presented in the financial statements (see Component Information in section 1 of the Policy). An example of a capital management measure may include annualized adjusted EBITDA.

If the capital management measure was calculated using one or more non-GAAP financial measures, under subparagraph 10(1)(b)(i) of the Instrument the issuer must disclose each non-GAAP financial measure and comply with section 6 of the Instrument, in respect of each non-GAAP financial measure used in the calculation of the capital management measure.

Clause 10(1)(b)(ii)(A) of the Instrument requires a clear explanation of the composition, for any capital management measure that is disclosed in the form of a ratio, fraction, percentage or similar representation.

The level of detail expected in the reconciliation required under clause 10(1)(b)(ii)(C) is a matter of judgment and depends on the nature and complexity of the reconciling items required to provide the necessary context.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are forward-looking Information
Re ss. 7(2)(c)

Prominence of a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information

The Instrument requires a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information to be presented with no more prominence in the document than that of the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure disclosed. This means that the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information must be presented with no more prominence than that of the most directly comparable financial measure that is presented in the primary financial statements, as required by paragraph 6(1)(d) of the Instrument.


SEC Rules
Regulation S-K
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Item 10(e)

Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures in Commission Filings

(1) Whenever one or more non-GAAP financial measures are included in a filing with the Commission:

(i) The registrant must include the following in the filing:

(A) A presentation, with equal or greater prominence, of the most directly comparable financial measure or measures calculated and presented in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP);

(B) A reconciliation (by schedule or other clearly understandable method), which shall be quantitative for historical non-GAAP measures presented, and quantitative, to the extent available without unreasonable efforts, for forward-looking information, of the differences between the non-GAAP financial measure disclosed or released with the most directly comparable financial measure or measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP identified in paragraph (e)(1)(i)(A) of this section;

(C) A statement disclosing the reasons why the registrant’s management believes that presentation of the non-GAAP financial measure provides useful information to investors regarding the registrant’s financial condition and results of operations; and

(D) To the extent material, a statement disclosing the additional purposes, if any, for which the registrant’s management uses the non-GAAP financial measure that are not disclosed pursuant to paragraph (e)(1)(i)(C) of this section; and

(ii) A registrant must not:

(A) Exclude charges or liabilities that required, or will require, cash settlement, or would have required cash settlement absent an ability to settle in another manner, from non-GAAP liquidity measures, other than the measures earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA);

(B) Adjust a non-GAAP performance measure to eliminate or smooth items identified as non-recurring, infrequent or unusual, when the nature of the charge or gain is such that it is reasonably likely to recur within two years or there was a similar charge or gain within the prior two years;

(C) Present non-GAAP financial measures on the face of the registrant’s financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP or in the accompanying notes;

(D) Present non-GAAP financial measures on the face of any pro forma financial information required to be disclosed by Article 11 of Regulation S-X (17 CFR 210.11-01 through 210.11-03); or

(E) Use titles or descriptions of non-GAAP financial measures that are the same as, or confusingly similar to, titles or descriptions used for GAAP financial measures; and

(iii) If the filing is not an annual report on Form 10-K or Form 20-F (17 CFR 249.220f), a registrant need not include the information required by paragraphs (e)(1)(i)(C) and (e)(1)(i)(D) of this section if that information was included in its most recent annual report on Form 10-K or Form 20-F or a more recent filing, provided that the required information is updated to the extent necessary to meet the requirements of paragraphs (e)(1)(i)(C) and (e)(1)(i)(D) of this section at the time of the registrant’s current filing.

(2) For purposes of this paragraph (e), a non-GAAP financial measure is a numerical measure of a registrant’s historical or future financial performance, financial position or cash flows that:

(i) Excludes amounts, or is subject to adjustments that have the effect of excluding amounts, that are included in the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP in the statement of comprehensive income, balance sheet or statement of cash flows (or equivalent statements) of the issuer; or

(ii) Includes amounts, or is subject to adjustments that have the effect of including amounts, that are excluded from the most directly comparable measure so calculated and presented.

(3) For purposes of this paragraph (e), GAAP refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, except that:

(i) In the case of foreign private issuers whose primary financial statements are prepared in accordance with non-U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, GAAP refers to the principles under which those primary financial statements are prepared; and

(ii) In the case of foreign private issuers that include a non-GAAP financial measure derived from or based on a measure calculated in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, GAAP refers to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles for purposes of the application of the requirements of this paragraph (e) to the disclosure of that measure.

(4) For purposes of this paragraph (e), non-GAAP financial measures exclude:

(i) Operating and other statistical measures; and

(ii) Ratios or statistical measures calculated using exclusively one or both of:

(A) Financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP; and

(B) Operating measures or other measures that are not non-GAAP financial measures.

(5) For purposes of this paragraph (e), non-GAAP financial measures exclude financial measures required to be disclosed by GAAP, Commission rules, or a system of regulation of a government or governmental authority or self-regulatory organization that is applicable to the registrant. However, the financial measure should be presented outside of the financial statements unless the financial measure is required or expressly permitted by the standard-setter that is responsible for establishing the GAAP used in such financial statements.

(6) The requirements of paragraph (e) of this section shall not apply to a non-GAAP financial measure included in disclosure relating to a proposed business combination, the entity resulting therefrom or an entity that is a party thereto, if the disclosure is contained in a communication that is subject to Section 230.425 of this chapter, Section 240.14a-12 or Section 240.14d-2(b)(2) of this chapter or Section 229.1015 of this chapter.

(7) The requirements of paragraph (e) of this section shall not apply to investment companies registered under section 8 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-8).

Note to paragraph (e): A non-GAAP financial measure that would otherwise be prohibited by paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section is permitted in a filing of a foreign private issuer if:

1. The non-GAAP financial measure relates to the GAAP used in the registrant’s primary financial statements included in its filing with the Commission;

2. The non-GAAP financial measure is required or expressly permitted by the standard-setter that is responsible for establishing the GAAP used in such financial statements; and

3. The non-GAAP financial measure is included in the annual report prepared by the registrant for use in the jurisdiction in which it is domiciled, incorporated or organized or for distribution to its security holders.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 7

Non-GAAP financial measures that are forward-looking information

(1) In this section,

“equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure” means a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information and has the same composition as a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information;

SEC issuer” has the meaning ascribed to it in National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards.

(2) An issuer must not disclose a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-lookinginformation in a document unless all of the following apply:

(a) the document discloses an equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure;

(b) the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information is labelled using the same label used for the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure;

(c) the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information ispresented with no more prominence in the document than that of the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure;

(d) in proximity to the first instance of the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information in the document, the document discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5, a description of any significant difference between the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information and the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure.

(3) Subsection (2) does not apply if the disclosure is made

(a) by an SEC issuer, and

(b) in compliance with Regulation G under the 1934 Act.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Definitions
Re s. 1

Definition of a supplementary financial measure

Component Information

An issuer that operates in the retail industry may disclose financial results for “same-store sales” each reporting period. When same-store sales, a component of overall sales, is calculated in accordance with the accounting policies used to prepare the sales line item presented in the primary financial statements, it would not meet the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure. However, since in this example “same-store sales” is used by the issuer to depict financial performance by reporting sales performance from period to period, it would meet the definition of a supplementary financial measure.

Conversely, when the measure is not calculated in accordance with the issuer’s accounting policies, such measure would meet the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure. For example, if the sales figure in “same-store sales” is sales presented on a constant-dollar basis, this constant-dollar sales figure meets the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure since it excludes amounts (i.e., the effect of foreign exchange differences) that are included in the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements (i.e., sales). As a result, the “constant dollar same-store sales” measure in this example would meet the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure or the “constant dollar same-store sales per square foot” measure would meet the definition of a non-GAAP ratio.

If an issuer discloses a financial measure that is a component of a financial statement line item to explain how the financial statement line item changed from period to period (in dollars or as a percentage, for instance), such a measure would not meet the definition of a supplementary financial measure if the measure is not intended to be disclosed on a periodic basis. For example, if an issuer experienced an unexpected increase in administrative expenses, it may analyze the reasons for changes in administrative expenses by, among other things, disclosing information about its insurance expense, a component of overall administrative expenses. In this example, insurance expense would not meet the definition of a supplementary financial measure because, among other things, the insurance expense was calculated in accordance with the accounting policies used to prepare the administrative expenses line item presented in the primary financial statements.

Periodic Basis

An element of the definition of a supplementary financial measure is that it is disclosed or is intended to be disclosed on a periodic basis. A measure will not be precluded from being considered a supplementary financial measure the first time it is disclosed if the measure is intended to be disclosed on an ongoing basis (e.g., in future quarterly and/or annual disclosures).

Financial Ratios

A financial ratio that is not a non-GAAP ratio would typically meet the definition of supplementary financial measure because such ratio is often disclosed on a periodic basis to depict historical or future financial performance, financial position or cash flow.

Financial ratios contain at least one financial component (either the numerator or the denominator).

Examples include, but are not limited to the following ratios:

  • Liquidity ratios such as the current ratio;
  • Solvency ratios such as the debt-to-equity ratio;
  • Profitability ratios such as the return on equity ratio or revenue per user; and
  • Activity ratios such as the inventory turnover ratio.

National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 10

Capital management measures

(1) An issuer must not disclose a capital management measure in a document, other than financial statements about the entity to which the measure relates, unless all of the following apply:

(a) the capital management measure is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of similar financial measures disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity;

(b) in proximity to the first instance of the capital management measure in the document, the document,

(i) if the capital management measure was calculated using one or more non-GAAP financial measures, discloses each such non-GAAP financial measure;

(ii) discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5,

(A) for any capital management measure that is disclosed in the form of a ratio, fraction, percentage or similar representation, an explanation of its composition,

(B) an explanation of how the capital management measure provides useful information to an investor and explains the additional purposes, if any, for which management uses the capital management measure, and

(C) for any capital management measure that is not disclosed as a ratio, fraction, percentage or similar representation, a quantitative reconciliation of the capital management measure for its current and comparative period, if disclosed under paragraph (c), to the most directly comparable financial measure disclosed in the primary financial statements of the issuer;

(c) if the capital management measure is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the capital management measure for a comparative period, determined using the same composition, is disclosed in the document, unless it has not been previously disclosed.

(2) Subparagraph (1)(b)(ii) does not apply if the disclosure required under that subparagraph is made in the notes to the financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Total segments measures
Re s. 9

Disclosure of total of segments measures

An entity’s financial reporting framework used in the preparation of the financial statements may permit disclosure of a broad range of segment measures, but may not necessarily specify how such financial measures should be calculated or require that these financial measures comply with the recognition and measurement requirements of the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements of the entity.

When disclosed outside the financial statements, the disclosures made under section 9 of the Instrument should allow a reader to understand how these total of segments measures are calculated and how they relate to measures presented in the entity’s primary financial statements.

An example of a total of segments measure is when an issuer discloses adjusted EBITDA for each of its reportable segments in the notes to the financial statements: segment A, segment B, and segment C. The issuer then sums the adjusted EBITDA for each segment and discloses total “entity-adjusted EBITDA”. “Entity-adjusted EBITDA” is a total of segments measure and is not presented in the primary financial statements. When this financial measure is disclosed in a document other than the financial statements, the issuer must comply with section 9 of the Instrument. For clarity, the individual segment adjusted EBITDA measure for segment A, for instance, would not be captured as a total of segments measure and would not be subject to section 9 of the Instrument.

If an issuer discloses a financial measure of a reportable segment and such financial measure is not presented or disclosed in the financial statements to which the financial measure relates, the issuer should consider whether this financial measure meets the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure.

A total of segments measure does not include a component of a financial statement line item for which the component has been calculated in accordance with the accounting policies used to prepare the line item presented in the financial statements (see Component Information in section 1 of the Policy).

An SEC issuer may characterize a total of segments measure as a non-GAAP financial measure in compliance with SEC rules on non-GAAP financial measures and in doing so, the issuer would be complying with the requirements in section 9 of the Instrument in respect of this measure.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Proximity, composition and usefulness
Re ss. 6(1)(e)(ii)(A), 8(c)(iii)(A), 10(1)(b)(ii)(A), 11(b)

Explain the composition

The composition explanation should include a clear description of how the specified financial measure is calculated. For example, we would expect an issuer to describe the type of adjustments made, such as those for “non-cash” items or the basis being used to determine the type of adjustments.

In most instances, this requirement would not be satisfied just by listing all adjustments made in calculating the measure.

It is important to consider whether any new adjustment made in the calculation of a specified financial measure might constitute a change in composition or whether the adjustment is consistent with the stated usefulness of the measure.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Proximity, composition and usefulness
Re ss. 6(1)(e)(ii)(B), 8(c)(iii)(B), 10(1)(b)(ii)(B)

Usefulness of a specified financial measure

The Instrument does not define the term “useful”. The term “useful” is intended to reflect how management believes that presentation of the non-GAAP financial measure provides incremental information to investors regarding the issuer’s financial position, financial performance or cash flows. The term “useful” should be considered in the context of what a person making an investment decision would consider useful.

A statement made to satisfy the requirement of clauses 6(1)(e)(ii)(B), 8(c)(iii)(B) and 10(1)(b)(ii)(B) of the Instrument should

Issuers should avoid making inappropriate or potentially misleading statements about the usefulness of a measure. The Instrument does not explicitly prohibit certain adjustments. However, if adjustments are not consistent with the usefulness explanation provided to address clauses 6(1)(e)(ii)(B), 8(c)(iii)(B) and 10(1)(b)(ii)(B) of the Instrument, this may result in a specified financial measure that is inappropriate or misleading.

A specified financial measure may be misleading if it

  • Includes positive components of the most directly comparable financial measure but omits negative components (e.g., presenting a specified financial measure that excludes unrealized losses on financial instruments but includes unrealized gains); or
  • Excludes from an operating performance measure those operating expenses necessary to operate an issuer’s business.

Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Application and exceptions
Re ss. 4(2)

Statement of Executive Compensation

In the context of Form 51-102F6 Statement of Executive Compensation (“Form 51-102F6”) or Form 51-102F6V Statement of Executive Compensation – Venture Issuers (“Form 51-102F6V”), if a financial measure is identified (e.g., adjusted net income) and the calculation is described (e.g., net income adjusted for foreign exchange gains or losses) but no financial amount is disclosed (i.e., no dollar amount), it would not be within the scope of the Instrument because a financial measure has not been disclosed, only identified and described.

If a specified financial measure that is in scope of the Instrument is disclosed in Form 51-102F6 or Form 51-102F6V (e.g., adjusted net income of $X), as outlined in subsection 4(2) of the Instrument, only the following information is required, as applicable: the identification of the non-GAAP financial measure under paragraph 6(1)(b) and the quantitative reconciliation of the specified financial measure under clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C), paragraph 9(c) or clause 10(1)(b)(ii)(C).


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Introduction

Introduction

National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure (the “Instrument”) sets out specific disclosure requirements for non-GAAP financial measures, non-GAAP ratios, and other financial measures, which are capital management measures, supplementary financial measures, and total of segments measures, as defined in the Instrument (together the “specified financial measures”). The purpose of this Companion Policy (the “Policy”) is to explain how the provincial and territorial regulatory authorities interpret or apply certain provisions of the Instrument. This Policy includes explanations, discussions, and examples of various parts of the Instrument. This Policy contains, as Appendix A, a flow chart outlining the process for assessing specified financial measures. The flow chart is for illustrative purposes only and, in all cases, reference should be made to the precise language of the Instrument.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are forward-looking Information
Re ss. 7(2)(d)

Description of any significant difference between the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information and the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure

The requirement in paragraph 7(2)(d) of the Instrument can be addressed in a schedule or other presentation which details significant differences between the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information and the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure. The material factors and assumptions that were used to develop the forward-looking information, as specified in paragraph 4A.3(c) of NI 51-102, will complement this disclosure.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 9

Total of segments measures

An issuer must not disclose a total of segments measure in a document, other than in financial statements about the entity to which the measure relates, unless all of the following apply:

(a) the document discloses the most directly comparable financial measure disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity;

(b) the total of segments measure is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (a);

(c) in proximity to the first instance of the total of segments measure in the document, the document discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5, a quantitative reconciliation of the total of segments measure for its current and comparative period, if disclosed under paragraph (d), to the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (a), in the permitted format referred to in subsection 6(2);

(d) if the total of segments measure is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the total of segments measure for a comparative period, determined using the same composition, is disclosed in the document, unless it has not been previously disclosed.


Companion Policy 51-102CP Continuous Disclosure Obligations
Part 4 Disclosure and Presentation of Financial Information
Section 4.2

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Reporting issuers that intend to publish financial measures other than those prescribed by Canadian GAAP applicable to publicly accountable enterprises should refer to CSA Staff Notice 52-306 Non-GAAP Financial Measures* for a discussion of staff expectations concerning the use of non-GAAP measures.

* Lexata note: Staff Notice 52-306 was replaced by National Instrument 52-112 and its Companion Policy as of August 25, 2021. There are exceptions for annual materials filed in respect of 2020. For transition details, see Part 5 of the new rule.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 1 Definitions and Application
Section 1

supplementary financial measure

supplementary financial measure” means a financial measure disclosed by an issuer that

(a) is, or is intended to be, disclosed on a periodic basis to depict the historical or expected future financial performance, financial position or cash flow of an entity,

(b) is not disclosed in the financial statements of the entity,

(c) is not a non-GAAP financial measure, and

(d) is not a non-GAAP ratio;


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Introduction

Financial Reporting Framework, Accounting Principles, and Accounting Policies

In Canada, there are different financial reporting frameworks for different types of entities. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) is a common term used to refer to a financial reporting framework that comprises the accounting principles that are generally accepted in a jurisdiction. National Instrument 52-107 Accounting and Auditing Principles prescribes, among other things, acceptable accounting principles, such as International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”).

The application of accounting principles often requires specific accounting policies. Accounting policies encompass all accounting policies applied in preparing and presenting financial statements, not just those which are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 11

Supplementary financial measures

An issuer must not disclose a supplementary financial measure in a document unless both of the following apply:

(a) the supplementary financial measure is labelled using a term that,

(i) given the measure’s composition, describes the measure, and

(ii) distinguishes the measure from totals, subtotals and line items disclosed in the primary financial statements of the issuer;

(b) in proximity to the first instance of the supplementary financial measure in the document, the document discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5, an explanation of the composition of the supplementary financial measure.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 1 Definitions and Application
Section 1

capital management measure

capital management measure” means a financial measure disclosed by an issuer that

(a) is intended to enable an individual to evaluate an entity’s objectives, policies and processes for managing the entity’s capital,

(b) is not a component of a line item disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity,

(c) is disclosed in the notes to the financial statements of the entity, and

(d) is not disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity;


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Comparative information
Re ss. 6(1)(f) and 8(d)

Presenting comparative information for a non-GAAP financial measure or a non-GAAP ratio

Impracticable

Understandably, it is impracticable for an issuer to provide the comparative disclosure required by paragraph 6(1)(f) or 8(d) of the Instrument when the current period is the first period of operations and no comparative period exists. However, when a comparative period exists, we do not consider the cost or the time involved in preparing the comparative information to be sufficient rationale for an issuer to assert that it is impracticable to disclose such information.

Changes in Accounting Standards

We would not consider adoption of a new accounting standard, which would include adoption of amendments to current accounting standards, or a change in accounting policy, to be a basis for not presenting comparative period disclosure, as the composition of the non-GAAP financial measure should continue to be the same.

Adoption of new accounting standards, or changes in accounting policy, may modify measurement and recognition of transactions which will have an impact on line items, subtotals and totals over different financial periods. However, the composition of the non-GAAP financial measure itself should not change. Consider, for example, an issuer that discloses EBITDA as its non-GAAP financial measure, and in the current year adopts a new accounting standard which modifies the classification of certain expenditures from administrative expense to interest expense. While the resulting EBITDA measure will no longer include those transactions, EBITDA will continue to have the same composition, as it will comprise earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization. Therefore, the issuer would not be subject to the explanation of the reason for the change disclosure under clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(D).

The financial reporting framework used to prepare an entity’s financial statements would determine whether comparative information is restated with adoption of a new accounting standard or change in accounting policy. For example, we expect comparative non-GAAP financial measures to be restated when a new accounting standard or policy is applied retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented. Conversely, if a new accounting standard is applied prospectively or retrospectively without restatement of a prior reporting period presented, the specified financial measures would also not be restated. In such circumstances, the issuer communicates that the comparative non-GAAP financial measures are disclosed under the previous financial reporting framework used to prepare the entity’s financial statements.

In both cases, the composition of the specified financial measure has not changed, and the explanation of the reason for the change disclosure under clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(D) would not be required.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Introduction

Financial Measures

The Instrument applies when a specified financial measure is disclosed in a document. If the financial measure is identified only by label without a corresponding numerical amount or measure, a specified financial measure has not been disclosed and, thus, the disclosure requirements within the Instrument do not apply.

For clarity, the Instrument does not apply to qualitative disclosure of targets, benchmarks or covenants that are not accompanied by the disclosure of a financial numerical amount for the measure.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Application and exceptions
Re ss. 4(1)(e)

Financial measures required under law or by an SRO

Paragraph 4(1)(e) includes financial measures disclosed in accordance with prescribed (i.e., mandatory) requirements under applicable securities legislation, for example, disclosure of earnings coverage ratios prescribed by Item 9 of Form 41-101F1 Information Required in a Prospectus. Voluntary disclosure that is permitted but not required by other securities legislation is subject to the requirements of the Instrument.

The Instrument also does not apply to a financial measure that is disclosed in accordance with the laws of a jurisdiction of Canada, or jurisdiction outside Canada, including governments, governmental authorities and SROs. This exclusion is, however, only applicable in situations when a financial measure is required to be disclosed and the law specifically specifies its composition.

If an issuer discloses a financial measure that is prepared in accordance with voluntary guidance published by a government, governmental authority or SRO that is applicable to the issuer, then the financial measure is subject to the requirements of this Instrument.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Application and exceptions
Re ss. 4(1)(d)(i)

Reports prepared by a person or company other than the issuer or entity that is the subject of the specified financial measure

The Instrument does not apply to reports that are prepared by a person or company other than the issuer or entity that is the subject of the specified financial measure. An example is an analyst report disclosed by an issuer (i.e., either through posting a copy of this analyst report or by providing a link to such a report on its website), where this report has been prepared by a person or company other than the issuer (i.e., a “third-party”) and contains financial measures that provide information about the issuer itself (i.e., “the subject of the specified financial measure”).

Examples of these “third-party” reports include analyst reports, fairness opinions and valuation reports. These reports may also include those filed under subparagraphs 9.1(1)(a)(vi) or 9.2(a)(v) of National Instrument 41-101 General Prospectus Requirements, subparagraphs 4.1(1)(a)(vi) or 4.2(a)(iv) of National Instrument 44-101 Short Form Prospectus Distributions, section 2.5 of Form 51-102F4 Business Acquisition Report or Part 6 of Multilateral Instrument 61-101 Protection of Minority Security Holders in Special Transactions.

However, when an issuer discloses a specified financial measure that has been taken from such a report prepared by a person or company other than the issuer, this specified financial measure is within the scope of the Instrument.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 1 Definitions and Application
Section 1

total of segments measure

total of segments measure” means a financial measure disclosed by an issuer that

(a) is a subtotal or total of 2 or more reportable segments of an entity,

(b) is not a component of a line item disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity,

(c) is disclosed in the notes to the financial statements of the entity, and

(d) is not disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Application and exceptions
Re ss. 4(1)(f)

Specified financial measure where its calculation is derived from a financial covenant in a written agreement

The Instrument does not apply to an issuer in respect of disclosure of a specified financial measure where its calculation is derived from a financial covenant in a written agreement, for example, a specified financial measure whose calculation and composition are derived from a financial covenant within a credit agreement.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Application and exceptions
Re ss. 4(1)(g)

Specified financial measure disclosed in a document by a registered firm that is intended to be, or is reasonably likely to be, made available to a client or a prospective client of the registered firm

The Instrument does not apply to an issuer that is a registered firm in respect of disclosure of a specified financial measure if (i) the document in which the disclosure is made is intended to be, or is reasonably likely to be, made available to a client or a prospective client of the registered firm, and (ii) the measure does not relate to the registered firm’s financial performance, financial position or cash flow. Examples would include a report prepared and disclosed by a registered firm, such as an analyst report which contains data and analysis of an unrelated issuer or entity.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Application and exceptions
Re ss. 4(1)(c)(i) and (ii)

Mineral projects

The Instrument does not apply to disclosure required under National Instrument 43-101 Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects (“NI 43-101”) related to an issuer’s material mineral project. For example, Item 22 of Form 43-101F1 Technical Report requires an issuer to disclose an economic analysis that includes certain financial measures. Section 5.4 of Form 51-102F2 Annual Information Form requires an issuer to disclose certain measures such as capital and operating costs, and annual cash flow, net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period disclosed in an economic analysis.

The Instrument does not apply to these measures because they are specifically required to be disclosed under NI 43-101. However, if an issuer discloses a financial measure that is not specifically required to be disclosed under NI 43-101, for example, EBITDA, it may be considered a specified financial measure and, thus, is within the scope of the Instrument.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 1 Definitions and Application
Section 4

Application – exceptions

(1) Despite sections 2 and 3, this Instrument does not apply to the following:

(a) an investment fund as defined in National Instrument 81-106 Investment Fund Continuous Disclosure;

(b) a designated foreign issuer, or an SEC foreign issuer, as defined in National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards;

(c) an issuer in respect of disclosure required under any of the following:

(i) National Instrument 43-101 Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects;

(ii) section 5.4 of Form 51-102F2 Annual Information Form;

(iii) National Instrument 51-101 Standards of Disclosure for Oil and Gas Activities, other than section 5.14 of that Instrument;

(d) an issuer in respect of disclosure in any of the following:

(i) a report prepared by a person or company other than the issuer or entity that is the subject of the specified financial measure;

(ii) a transcript of an oral statement;

(iii) pro forma financial statements required to be filed under securities legislation;

(iv) a filing required under section 12.1 or 12.2 of National Instrument 51-102 Continuous Disclosure Obligations or subparagraphs 9.1(1)(a)(ii) and 9.2(a)(ii) and section 9.3 of National Instrument 41-101 General Prospectus Requirements;

(e) an issuer in respect of disclosure of a specified financial measure that is required under law, or by an SRO of which the issuer is a member, if

(i) the law or the SRO’s requirement specifies the composition of the measure and the measure was determined in compliance with that law or requirement, and

(ii) in proximity to the measure, the issuer discloses the law or the SRO’s requirement under which the measure is disclosed;

(f) an issuer in respect of disclosure of a specified financial measure if the calculation of the specified financial measure is derived from a financial covenant in a written agreement;

(g) an issuer that is a registered firm in respect of disclosure of a specified financial measure if

(i) the document in which the disclosure is made is intended to be, or is reasonably likely to be, made available to a client or a prospective client of the registered firm, and

(ii) the measure does not relate to the registered firm’s financial performance, financial position or cash flow.

(2) Despite sections 2 and 3, this Instrument does not apply to disclosure required under Form 51-102F6 Statement of Executive Compensation and Form 51-102F6V Statement of Executive Compensation – Venture Issuers, except for the information required under paragraph 6(1)(b), clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C), paragraph 9(c) and clause 10(1)(b)(ii)(C) of this Instrument.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Introduction

Specified Financial Measures Disclosed by an Issuer and Financial Statements of an Entity

An issuer may disclose a specified financial measure that is derived from its financial statements or the financial statements of another entity. The following are examples of financial statements of an entity, other than the issuer’s financial statements, that a specified financial measure may be derived from:


SEC Rules
Regulation S-X
Form and Content of and Requirements for Financial Statements
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS AS TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Section 3-04

Changes in stockholders’ equity and noncontrolling interests.

An analysis of the changes in each caption of stockholders’ equity and noncontrolling interests presented in the balance sheets shall be given in a note or separate statement. This analysis shall be presented in the form of a reconciliation of the beginning balance to the ending balance for each period for which a statement of comprehensive income is required to be filed with all significant reconciling items described by appropriate captions with contributions from and distributions to owners shown separately. Also, state separately the adjustments to the balance at the beginning of the earliest period presented for items which were retroactively applied to periods prior to that period. With respect to any dividends, state the amount per share and in the aggregate for each class of shares. Provide a separate schedule in the notes to the financial statements that shows the effects of any changes in the registrant’s ownership interest in a subsidiary on the equity attributable to the registrant.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 2 Incorporating information by reference
Section 5

Incorporating information by reference

(1) Subject to subsections (3) and (4), an issuer may incorporate by reference the information required under any of the following provisions, if the reference is to the issuer’s MD&A:

(a) subparagraph 6(1)(e)(ii);

(b) paragraph 7(2)(d);

(c) subparagraph 8(c)(iii);

(d) paragraph 9(c);

(e) subparagraph 10(1)(b)(ii);

(f) paragraph 11(b).

(2) If, as permitted under subsection (1), an issuer incorporates required information by reference into a document, the issuer must include all of the following in the document:

(a) a statement indicating that the information is incorporated by reference;

(b) a statement that specifies the location of the information in the MD&A;

(c) a statement that the MD&A is available on SEDAR at www.sedar.com.

(3) Despite subsection (1), an issuer must not incorporate by reference the information referred to in subsection (1) in its MD&A if the document that contains the specified financial measure is another MD&A filed by the issuer.

(4) Despite subsection (1), an issuer must not incorporate by reference the information referred to in clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C), paragraph 7(2)(d) or 9(c) or clause 10(1)(b)(ii)(C) if the document that contains the specified financial measure is in an earnings release filed by the issuer.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Proximity, composition and usefulness
Re ss. 6(1)(e), 7(2)(d), 8(c), 9(c), 10(1)(b), 11(b)

Proximity to the first instance

To prevent duplicative disclosure, an issuer may include the information required by paragraphs 6(1)(e), 7(2)(d), 8(c), 9(c), 10(1)(b), 11(b) of the Instrument in one section of the document, unless incorporation by reference is permitted under section 5 of the Instrument. To satisfy these requirements, when the specified financial measure first appears in the document an issuer may reference, either through a footnote or in another manner, a separate section within the same document that contains the disclosure required by these paragraphs.

There may be types of documents where it is not clear when the specified financial measure first occurs or appears, for example, websites and social media. In these instances, the “first instance” disclosure requirements may be satisfied by providing a website hyperlink to where the disclosures required by paragraphs 6(1)(e), 7(2)(d), 8(c), 9(c), 10(1)(b), 11(b) of the Instrument are found (e.g., on another section of the website) with minimal to no scrolling or navigation. Hyperlinking may only be provided within a website or within a document.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Definitions
Re s. 1

Definition of primary financial statements

The Instrument uses the terms “statement of financial position”, “statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income”, “statement of changes in equity”, and “statement of cash flows”, to describe the primary financial statements. Issuers may use titles for the statements other than those terms if the titles comply with the financial reporting framework used in the preparation of the financial statements. For example, an issuer may use the title of “balance sheet” instead of “statement of financial position”.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Application and exceptions
Re ss. 4(1)(d)(iii)

Pro forma financial statements

The Instrument does not apply to pro-forma financial statements included in a filing required under securities legislation, such as pro-forma financial statements required to be included in a business acquisition report under NI 51-102.

The Instrument does apply to pro-forma financial statements included in a filing made on a voluntary basis (i.e., it is not explicitly required under securities legislation).


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 1 Definitions and Application
Section 3

Application – issuers that are not reporting issuers

This Instrument applies to an issuer that is not a reporting issuer in respect of its disclosure of a specified financial measure in a document if the document is made available to the public and is

(a) subject to National Instrument 41-101 General Prospectus Requirements.

(b) filed with a regulator or a securities regulatory authority in connection with a distribution made under section 2.9 of National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions, or

(c) submitted to a recognized exchange in connection with a qualifying transaction, reverse takeover, change of business, listing application, significant acquisition or similar transaction.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Application and exceptions
Re s. 3

Application to issuers that are not reporting issuers

The Instrument applies to an issuer that is not a reporting issuer in respect of its disclosure of a specified financial measure in a document if the document is filed with a regulator or a securities regulatory authority in connection with a distribution made in reliance on the offering memorandum exemption under NI 45-106, including the following documents:


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Introduction

Interpretation of “made available to the public” and “filed”, “delivered” or “submitted”

Documents made available to the public include not only information filed on SEDAR but also information on a website and disclosure provided through social media platforms.

The Instrument uses the terms “filed” and “submitted”. This Policy also uses the term “delivered”. Material that is filed in a jurisdiction will be made available to the public in that jurisdiction, subject to the provisions of securities legislation in the local jurisdiction. Material that is delivered to a regulator or securities regulatory authority, or submitted to a recognized exchange, but not filed, is not generally required under securities legislation to be made available to the public.


Proposed Climate-Related Disclosure Rules
Regulation S-X
SEC Rules
Section 14-02

Climate-related metrics

(a) Contextual information. Provide contextual information, describing how each specified metric was derived, including a description of significant inputs and assumptions used, and, if applicable, policy decisions made by the registrant to calculate the specified metrics.

(b) Disclosure thresholds.

(1) Disclosure of the financial impact on a line item in the registrant’s consolidated financial statements pursuant to paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section (including any impacts included pursuant to paragraphs (i) and (j) of this section) is not required if the sum of the absolute values of all the impacts on the line item is less than one percent of the total line item for the relevant fiscal year.

(2) Disclosure of the aggregate amount of expenditure expensed or the aggregate amount of capitalized costs incurred pursuant to paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section (including any impacts included pursuant to paragraphs (i) and (j) of this section) is not required if such amount is less than one percent of the total expenditure expensed or total capitalized costs incurred, respectively, for the relevant fiscal year.

(c) Financial impacts of severe weather events and other natural conditions. Disclose the impact of severe weather events and other natural conditions, such as flooding, drought, wildfires, extreme temperatures, and sea level rise on any relevant line items in the registrant’s consolidated financial statements during the fiscal years presented. Disclosure must be presented, at a minimum, on an aggregated line-by-line basis for all negative impacts and, separately, at a minimum, on an aggregated line-by-line basis for all positive impacts. Impacts may include, for example:

(1) Changes to revenues or costs from disruptions to business operations or supply chains;

(2) Impairment charges and changes to the carrying amount of assets (such as inventory, intangibles, and property, plant and equipment) due to the assets being exposed to severe weather, flooding, drought, wildfires, extreme temperatures, and sea level rise;

(3) Changes to loss contingencies or reserves (such as environmental reserves or loan loss allowances) due to impact from severe weather events; and

(4) Changes to total expected insured losses due to flooding or wildfire patterns.

(d) Financial impacts related to transition activities. Disclose the impact of any efforts to reduce GHG emissions or otherwise mitigate exposure to transition risks on any relevant line items in the registrant’s consolidated financial statements during the fiscal years presented. Disclosure must be presented, at a minimum, on an aggregated line-by-line basis for all negative impacts and, separately, at a minimum, on an aggregated line-by-line basis for all positive impacts. Impacts may include, for example:

(1) Changes to revenue or cost due to new emissions pricing or regulations resulting in the loss of a sales contract;

(2) Changes to operating, investing, or financing cash flow from changes in upstream costs, such as transportation of raw materials;

(3) Changes to the carrying amount of assets (such as intangibles and property, plant, and equipment) due to, among other things, a reduction of the asset’s useful life or a change in the asset’s salvage value by being exposed to transition activities; and

(4) Changes to interest expense driven by financing instruments such as climate-linked bonds issued where the interest rate increases if certain climate-related targets are not met.

(e) Expenditure to mitigate risks of severe weather events and other natural conditions. Disclose separately the aggregate amount of expenditure expensed and the aggregate amount of capitalized costs incurred during the fiscal years presented to mitigate the risks from severe weather events and other natural conditions, such as flooding, drought, wildfires, extreme temperatures, and sea level rise. For example, a registrant may be required to disclose the amount of expense or capitalized costs, as applicable, to increase the resilience of assets or operations, retire or shorten the estimated useful lives of impacted assets, relocate assets or operations at risk, or otherwise reduce the future impact of severe weather events and other natural conditions on business operations.

(f) Expenditure related to transition activities. Disclose separately the aggregate amount of expenditure expensed and the aggregate amount of capitalized costs incurred during the fiscal years presented to reduce GHG emissions or otherwise mitigate exposure to transition risks. For example, a registrant may be required to disclose the amount of expense or capitalized costs, as applicable, related to research and development of new technologies, purchase of assets, infrastructure, or products that are intended to reduce GHG emissions, increase energy efficiency, offset emissions (purchase of energy credits), or improve other resource efficiency. A registrant that has disclosed GHG emissions reduction targets or other climate-related commitments must disclose the expenditures and costs related to meeting its targets, commitments, and goals, if any, in the fiscal years presented.

(g) Financial estimates and assumptions impacted by severe weather events and other natural conditions. Disclose whether the estimates and assumptions the registrant used to produce the consolidated financial statements were impacted by exposures to risks and uncertainties associated with, or known impacts from, severe weather events and other natural conditions, such as flooding, drought, wildfires, extreme temperatures, and sea level rise. If yes, provide a qualitative description of how the development of such estimates and assumptions were impacted by such events.

(h) Financial estimates and assumptions impacted by transition activities. Disclose whether the estimates and assumptions the registrant used to produce the consolidated financial statements were impacted by risks and uncertainties associated with, or known impacts from, a potential transition to a lower carbon economy or any climate-related targets disclosed by the registrant. If yes, provide a qualitative description of how the development of such estimates and assumptions were impacted by such a potential transition or the registrant’s disclosed climate-related targets.

(i) Impact of identified climate-related risks. A registrant must also include the impact of any climate-related risks (separately by physical risks and transition risks, as defined in Section 229.1500(c) of this chapter), identified by the registrant pursuant to Section 229.1502(a) of this chapter, on any of the financial statement metrics disclosed pursuant to paragraphs (c) through (h) of this section.

(j) Impact of climate-related opportunities. A registrant may also include the impact of any opportunities arising from severe weather events and other natural conditions, any impact of efforts to pursue climate-related opportunities associated with transition activities, and the impact of any other climate-related opportunities, including those identified by the registrant pursuant to Section 229.1502(a) of this chapter, on any of the financial statement metrics disclosed pursuant to paragraphs (c) through (h) of this section. If a registrant makes a policy decision to disclose the impact of an opportunity, it must do so consistently for the fiscal years presented, including for each financial statement line item and all relevant opportunities identified by the registrant.


summary financial information

Item 34.1 of Form 41-101F1: “summary financial information” includes the following line items:

(i) revenue;

(ii) profit or loss from continuing operations attributable to owners of the parent;

(iii) profit or loss attributable to owners of the parent; and

(iv) unless the accounting principles used to prepare the financial statements of the entity permits the preparation of the entity’s statement of financial position without classifying assets and liabilities between current and non-current and the entity provides alternative meaningful financial information which is more appropriate to the industry,

(A) current assets;

(B) non-current assets;

(C) current liabilities; and

(D) non-current liabilities.

Item 13.1 of Form 44-101F1: summary financial information” includes the following line items:

(i) revenue;

(ii) profit or loss from continuing operations attributable to owners of the parent;

(iii) profit or loss attributable to owners of the parent; and

(iv) unless the issuer`s GAAP permits the preparation of the credit support issuer’s statement of financial position without classifying assets and liabilities between current and non-current and the credit support issuer provides alternative meaningful financial information which is more appropriate to the industry, current assets; non-current assets; current liabilities; and non-current liabilities.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Incorporation by reference
Re s. 5

Incorporation by reference

The Instrument allows an issuer to incorporate by reference certain disclosure, if the reference is to the issuer’s MD&A. To meet the requirement that the MD&A be available on SEDAR under paragraph 5(2)(c) of the Instrument, the MD&A must be filed on SEDAR before, or simultaneously with the document, in order for this MD&A to be used to incorporate any information by reference into the document. For example, if an issuer is filing an annual information form that includes a specified financial measure and the issuer is incorporating certain information in the MD&A by reference to satisfy the disclosure requirements of the Instrument, that MD&A would have to be filed on SEDAR before or simultaneously with the filing of the annual information form.

Paragraph 5(2)(b) requires the identification of the specific location of the required information in the MD&A. To comply with this requirement, identify where the required information is specifically located within the MD&A (e.g., identify the specific MD&A including a reference to the date of the MD&A, its reporting period, and the specific section or page reference within the MD&A) or provide a hyperlink to the specific section or page within the MD&A where the information is located. Issuers would not satisfy this requirement with a general hyperlink to the relevant MD&A.

The Instrument allows an issuer to incorporate by reference certain required disclosure in a news release; however, subsection 5(1) does not apply to the quantitative reconciliation requirements under clauses 6(1)(e)(ii)(C), paragraph 7(2)(d) or 9(c), or clause 10(1)(b)(ii)(C) if the document that contains the specified financial measure is an earnings release filed by the issuer under section 11.4 of NI 51-102.


Companion Policy to NI 81-106 Investment Fund Continuous Disclosure
Part 2 Financial Statements
Section 2.1

Interrelationship of Financial Statements Statements with Canadian GAAP

(1) [Repealed]

(1.1) Subsection 2.6(2) of the Instrument, applicable to financial years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, refers to Canadian GAAP for publicly accountable enterprises, which is IFRS incorporated into the Handbook, contained in Part I of the Handbook. IFRS is defined in National Instrument 14-101 Definitions as the standards and interpretations adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board.

Subsection 2.6(1) of the Instrument, applicable to financial years beginning before January 1, 2014, refers to Canadian GAAP as applicable to public enterprises, which the CSA considers to be the standards in Part V of the Handbook.

(2) The CSA believe that an investment fund’s financial statements must include certain information, at a minimum, in order to provide full disclosure. The Instrument sets out these minimum requirements, but does not mandate all the required disclosure. Canadian GAAP applicable to publicly accountable enterprises also contains minimum requirements relating to the content of financial statements. An investment fund’s financial statements must meet these requirements as well.In some cases, the Instrument prescribes line items that may already be required by Canadian GAAP, but these line items are expressed more specifically for the activities of an investment fund. For example, Canadian GAAP requires a “trade and other receivables” line item on the statement of financial position, but the Instrument requires accounts receivable to be broken down into more specific categories. In other instances, the line items prescribed in the Instrument are in addition to those in Canadian GAAP.

While the Instrument prescribes line items, it does not prescribe the order in which those line items are presented. Investment funds should present line items, as well as any subtotals or totals, in a logical order that will contribute to a reader’s overall understanding of the financial statements.

Investment funds are responsible for disclosing all material information concerning their financial position and financial performance in the financial statements.

(3) [Repealed].


National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards
Part 3 Rules Applying to Financial Years Beginning on or After January 1, 2011
Section 3.14

Acceptable Accounting Policies for Pro Forma Financial Statements

(1) An issuer’s pro forma financial statements must be prepared using accounting policies that

(a) are permitted by the issuer`s GAAP, and

(b) would apply to the information presented in the pro forma financial statements if that information were included in the issuer’s financial statements for the same period as that of the pro forma financial statements.

(2) Despite subsection (1), if an issuer’s financial statements include, or are accompanied by, a reconciliation to U.S. GAAP, the issuer’s pro forma financial statements for the same period as the issuer’s financial statements may be prepared using accounting policies that

(a) are permitted by U.S. GAAP, and

(b) would apply to the information presented in the pro forma financial statements if that information were included in the reconciliation.

(3) Despite subsection (1), if the accounting principles used to prepare an issuer’s most recent annual financial statements differ from the accounting principles used to prepare the issuer’s interim financial report for a subsequent period, the issuer may prepare a pro forma income statement for the same period as that of its most recent annual financial statements using accounting policies that

(a) are permitted by the accounting principles that were used to prepare the issuer’s interim financial report, and

(b) would apply to the information presented in the pro forma income statement if that information were included in the issuer’s interim financial report.


Companion Policy 51-102CP Continuous Disclosure Obligations
Part 8 Business Acquisition Reports
Section 8.8

Relief from the Requirement to Audit Operating Statements of an Oil and Gas Property

The securities regulatory authority or regulator may exempt a reporting issuer from the requirement to audit the operating statements referred to in section 8.10 of the Instrument if, during the 12 months preceding the acquisition date, the average daily production of the property is less than 20 percent of the total average daily production of the vendor for the same or similar periods, and

(a) the reporting issuer provides written submissions prior to the deadline for filing the business acquisition report which establishes to the satisfaction of the appropriate regulator, that despite reasonable efforts during the purchase negotiations, the reporting issuer was prohibited from including in the purchase agreement the rights to obtain an audited operating statement of the property;

(b) the purchase agreement includes representations and warranties by the vendor that the amounts presented in the operating statement agree to the vendor’s books and records; and

(c) the reporting issuer discloses in the business acquisition report its inability to obtain an audited operating statement, the reasons therefor, the fact that the representations and warranties referred to in paragraph (b) have been obtained, and a statement that the results presented in the operating statement may have been materially different if the statement had been audited.

For the purpose of determining average daily production when production includes both oil and natural gas, production may be expressed in barrels of oil equivalent using the conversion ratio of 6000 cubic feet of gas to one barrel of oil.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 4 Exemption
Section 12

Exemption

(1) The regulator or the securities regulatory authority may grant an exemption from this Instrument, in whole or in part, subject to such conditions or restrictions as may be imposed in the exemption.

(2) Despite subsection (1), in Ontario, only the regulator may grant such an exemption.

(3) Except in Alberta and Ontario, an exemption referred to in subsection (1) is granted under the statute referred to in Appendix B of National Instrument 14-101 Definitions, opposite the name of the local jurisdiction.


National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards
Part 3 Rules Applying to Financial Years Beginning on or After January 1, 2011
Section 3.2

Acceptable Accounting Principles – General Requirements

(1) Financial statements referred to in paragraphs 2.1(2)(b), (c), (e) and (i), other than acquisition statements, must

(a) be prepared in accordance with Canadian GAAP applicable to publicly accountable enterprises, and

(b) disclose

(i) in the case of annual financial statements, an unreserved statement of compliance with IFRS, and

(ii) in the case of an interim financial report, an unreserved statement of compliance with IAS 34.

(2) Despite subsection (1), in the case of an interim financial report that is not required under securities legislation to provide comparative interim financial information,

(a) the statement of financial position, statement of comprehensive income, statement of changes in equity, statement of cash flows and explanatory notes must be prepared in accordance with IAS 34 other than the requirement in IAS 34 to include comparative financial information; and

(b) the interim financial report must disclose that

(i) it does not comply with IAS 34 because it does not include comparative interim financial information, and

(ii) the statement of financial position, statement of comprehensive income, statement of changes in equity, statement of cash flows and explanatory notes have been prepared in accordance with IAS 34 other than the requirement in IAS 34 to include comparative financial information.

(3) Financial statements and interim financial information referred to in paragraph 2.1(2)(a) must

(a) be prepared in accordance with Canadian GAAP applicable to publicly accountable enterprises, except that any investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates must be accounted for as specified for separate financial statements in IAS 27, and

(b) in the case of annual financial statements,

(i) include the following statement:

These financial statements are prepared in accordance with the financial reporting framework specified in [insert “paragraph 3.2(3)(a) “, “subsection 3.2(4)” or “section 3.15as applicable] of National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards for financial statements delivered by registrants.

and

(ii) describe the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements.

(4) Despite paragraph (3)(a), financial statements and interim financial information referred to in paragraph 2.1(2)(a) for periods relating to a financial year beginning in 2011 may be prepared in accordance with Canadian GAAP applicable to publicly accountable enterprises, except that

(a) any investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates must be accounted for as specified for separate financial statements in IAS 27,

(b) comparative information relating to the preceding financial year must be excluded, and

(c) the first day of the financial year to which the financial statements or interim financial information relates must be used as the date of transition to the financial reporting framework.

(5) Financial statements must be prepared in accordance with the same accounting principles for all periods presented in the financial statements.

(6) Financial information referred to in paragraphs 2.1(2)(f) and (g) must

(a) present the line items for summary financial information or summarized financial information required by National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or National Instrument 51-102 Continuous Disclosure Obligations, as the case may be, and

(b) in the case of summarized financial information of an acquired business or business to be acquired that is, or will be, an investment accounted for by the issuer using the equity method,

(i) be prepared using accounting policies that

(A) are permitted by one of Canadian GAAP applicable to publicly accountable enterprises, IFRS, U.S. GAAP or Canadian GAAP applicable to private enterprises, and

(B) would apply to the information if the information were presented as part of a complete set of financial statements,

(ii) include the following statement:

This information is prepared in accordance with the financial reporting framework specified in subsection 3.2(6) of National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards for summarized financial information of a business accounted for using the equity method.

and

(iii) describe the accounting policies used to prepare the information.


SEC Rules
Regulation S-X
Form and Content of and Requirements for Financial Statements
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS AS TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Section 3-05

Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

(a) Financial statements required.

(1) Financial statements (except the related schedules specified in Section 210.12) prepared and audited in accordance with Regulation S-X (including the independence standards in Section 210.2-01 or, alternatively if the business is not a registrant, the applicable independence standards) must be filed for the periods specified in paragraph (b) of this section if any of the following conditions exist:

(i) During the most recent fiscal year or subsequent interim period for which a balance sheet is required by Section 210.3-01, a business acquisition has occurred; or

(ii) After the date of the most recent balance sheet filed pursuant to Section 210.3-01, consummation of a business acquisition has occurred or is probable.

(2) For purposes of determining whether the provisions of this section apply:

(i) The determination of whether a business has been acquired should be made in accordance with the guidance set forth in Section 210.11-01(d); and

(ii) The acquisition of a business encompasses the acquisition of an interest in a business accounted for by the registrant under the equity method or, in lieu of the equity method, the fair value option.

(3) Acquisitions of a group of related businesses that are probable or that have occurred subsequent to the latest fiscal year-end for which audited financial statements of the registrant have been filed must be treated under this section as if they are a single business acquisition. The required financial statements of related businesses may be presented on a combined basis for any periods they are under common control or management. For purposes of this section, businesses will be deemed to be related if:

(i) They are under common control or management;

(ii) The acquisition of one business is conditional on the acquisition of each other business; or

(iii) Each acquisition is conditioned on a single common event.

(4) This section does not apply to a real estate operation subject to Section 210.3-14 or a business which is totally held by the registrant prior to consummation of the transaction.

(b) Periods to be presented.

(1) If registering an offering of securities to the security holders of the business to be acquired, then the financial statements specified in Section 210.3-01 and 210.3-02 must be filed for the business to be acquired, except as provided otherwise for filings on Form N-14, S-4, or F-4 ( Section 239.23, Section 239.25, or Section 239.34 of this chapter). The financial statements covering fiscal years must be audited except as provided in Item 14 of Schedule 14A ( Section 240.14a-101 of this chapter) with respect to certain proxy statements or in registration statements filed on Forms N-14, S-4, or F-4 ( Section 239.23, Section 239.25, or Section 239.34 of this chapter).

(2) In all cases not specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, financial statements of the business acquired or to be acquired must be filed for the periods specified in this paragraph (b)(2) or such shorter period as the business has been in existence. Determine the periods for which such financial statements are to be filed using the conditions specified in the definition of significant subsidiary in Section 210.1-02(w), using the lower of the total revenue component or income or loss from continuing operations component for evaluating the income test condition, as follows:

(i) If none of the conditions exceeds 20 percent, financial statements are not required.

(ii) If any of the conditions exceeds 20 percent, but none exceed 40 percent, financial statements must be filed for at least the most recent fiscal year and the most recent interim period specified in Section 210.3-01 and 210.3-02.

(iii) If any of the conditions exceeds 40 percent, financial statements must be filed for at least the two most recent fiscal years and any interim periods specified in Section 210.3-01 and 210.3-02.

(iv) If the aggregate impact of businesses acquired or to be acquired since the date of the most recent audited balance sheet filed for the registrant, for which financial statements are either not required by paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section or are not yet required based on paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section, exceeds 50 percent for any condition, the registrant must provide the disclosure specified in paragraphs (b)(2)(iv)(A) and (B) of this section, however in determining the aggregate impact of the investment test condition also include the aggregate impact calculated in accordance with Section 210.3-14(b)(2)(ii) of any acquired or to be acquired real estate operations specified in Section 210.3-14(b)(2)(i)(C). In determining whether the income test condition (i.e. both the revenue component and the income or loss from continuing operations component) exceeds 50 percent, the businesses specified in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) reporting losses must be aggregated separately from those reporting income. If either group exceeds 50 percent, paragraphs (b)(2)(iv)(A) and (B) of this section will apply to all of the businesses specified in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) and will not be limited to either the businesses with losses or those with income.

(A) Pro forma financial information pursuant to Section 210.11-01 through 210.11-02 that depicts the aggregate impact of these acquired or to be acquired businesses and real estate operations, in all material respects; and

(B) Financial statements covering at least the most recent fiscal year and the most recent interim period specified in Section 210.3-01 and 210.3-02 for any acquired or to be acquired business or real estate operation for which financial statements are not yet required based on paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section or Section 210.3-14(b)(3)(i).

(3) The determination must be made using Section 210.11-01(b)(3) and (4).

(4) Financial statements required for the periods specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section may be omitted to the extent specified as follows:

(i) Registration statements not subject to the provisions of Section 230.419 of this chapter and proxy statements need not include separate financial statements of an acquired or to be acquired business if neither the business nor the aggregate impact specified in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section exceeds any of the conditions of significance in the definition of significant subsidiary in Section 210.1-02 at the 50 percent level computed in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section, and either:

(A) The consummation of the acquisition has not yet occurred; or

(B) The date of the final prospectus or prospectus supplement relating to an offering as filed with the Commission pursuant to Section 230.424(b) of this chapter, or mailing date in the case of a proxy statement, is no more than 74 days after consummation of the business acquisition, and the financial statements have not previously been filed by the registrant.

(ii) A registrant, other than a foreign private issuer required to file reports on Form 6-K ( Section 249.306 of this chapter), that omits from its initial registration statement financial statements of a recently consummated business acquisition pursuant to paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section must file those financial statements and any pro forma information specified by Section 210.11-01 through 210.11-03 (Article 11) under cover of Form 8-K ( Section 249.308 of this chapter) no later than 75 days after consummation of the acquisition.

(iii) Separate financial statements of the acquired business specified in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section need not be presented once the operating results of the acquired business have been reflected in the audited consolidated financial statements of the registrant for at least nine months. Separate financial statements of the acquired business specified in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section need not be presented once the operating results of the acquired business have been reflected in the audited consolidated financial statements of the registrant for a complete fiscal year.

(iv) A separate audited balance sheet of the acquired business is not required when the registrant’s most recent audited balance sheet required by Section 210.3-01 is for a date after the date the acquisition was consummated.

(c) Financial statements of a foreign business. Financial statements of an acquired or to be acquired foreign business (as defined in Section 210.1-02(l)) meeting the requirements of Item 17 of Form 20-F ( Section 249.220f of this chapter) will satisfy this section. Such financial statements may be reconciled to U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP) or International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IFRS-IASB) if the registrant is a foreign private issuer that prepares its financial statements in accordance with IFRS-IASB. This reconciliation must generally follow the form and content requirements in Item 17(c) of Form 20-F; however, accommodations in Item 17(c)(2) of Form 20-F that would be inconsistent with IFRS-IASB may not be applied, and IFRS 1, First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards, may be applied.

(d) Financial statements of an acquired or to be acquired business that would be a foreign private issuer if it were a registrant. Financial statements of an acquired or to be acquired business that is not a foreign business (as defined in Section 210.1-02(l)), but would qualify as a foreign private issuer (as defined in Section 230.405 and 240.3b-4 of this chapter) if it were a registrant may be prepared in accordance with IFRSIASB without reconciliation to U.S. GAAP or, if the registrant is a foreign private issuer that prepares its financial statements in accordance with IFRS-IASB, may be prepared according to a comprehensive basis of accounting principles other than U.S. GAAP or IFRS-IASB and must be reconciled to IFRS-IASB or to U.S. GAAP. This reconciliation must generally follow the form and content requirements in Item 17(c) of Form 20-F; however, accommodations in Item 17(c)(2) of Form 20-F that would be inconsistent with IFRSIASB may not be applied, and IFRS 1, First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards, may be applied.

(e) Financial statements for net assets that constitute a business. For an acquisition of net assets that constitutes a business (e.g., an acquired or to be acquired product line), the financial statements prepared and audited in accordance with Regulation S-X may be abbreviated financial statements prepared in accordance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section if the business meets all of the qualifying conditions in paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(1) Qualifying conditions.

(i) The total assets and total revenues (both after intercompany eliminations) of the acquired or to be acquired business constitute 20 percent or less of such corresponding amounts of the seller and its subsidiaries consolidated as of and for the most recently completed fiscal year.

(ii) Separate financial statements for the business have not previously been prepared;

(iii) The acquired business was not a separate entity, subsidiary, operating segment (as defined in U.S. GAAP or IFRS-IASB, as applicable) or division during the periods for which the acquired business financial statements would be required; and

(iv) The seller has not maintained the distinct and separate accounts necessary to present financial statements that, absent this paragraph (e), would satisfy the requirements of this section and it is impracticable to prepare such financial statements.

(2) Presentation requirements.

(i) The balance sheet may be a statement of assets acquired and liabilities assumed;

(ii) The statement of comprehensive income must include expenses incurred by or on behalf of the acquired business during the pre-acquisition financial statement periods to be presented including, but not limited to, costs of sales or services, selling, distribution, marketing, general and administrative, depreciation and amortization, and research and development, but may otherwise omit corporate overhead expense, interest expense for debt that will not be assumed by the registrant or its subsidiaries consolidated, and income tax expense. The title of the statement of comprehensive income must be appropriately modified to indicate it omits certain expenses; and

(iii) The notes to the financial statements must include:

(A) A description of the type of omitted expenses and the reason(s) why they are excluded from the financial statements.

(B) An explanation of the impracticability of preparing financial statements that include the omitted expenses.

(C) A description of how the financial statements presented are not indicative of the financial condition or results of operations of the acquired business going forward because of the omitted expenses.

(D) Information about the business’s operating, investing and financing cash flows, to the extent available.

(f) Financial statements of a business that includes oil and gas producing activities.

(1) Disclosures about oil and gas producing activities must be provided for each full year of operations presented for an acquired or to be acquired business that includes significant oil- and gas-producing activities (as defined in the FASB ASC Master Glossary). The financial statements may present the disclosures in FASB ASC Topic 932 Extractive Activities – Oil and Gas, 932-235-50-3 through 50-11 and 932-235-50-29 through 50-36 as unaudited supplemental information. If prior year reserve studies were not made, they may be computed using only production and new discovery quantities and valuation, in which case there will be no “revision of prior estimates” amounts. Registrants may develop these disclosures based on a reserve study for the most recent year, computing the changes backward. The method of computation must be disclosed in a footnote.

(2) The financial statements prepared and audited in accordance with Regulation S-X may consist of only statements of revenues and expenses that exclude expenses not comparable to the proposed future operations such as depreciation, depletion and amortization, corporate overhead, income taxes, and interest for debt that will not be assumed by the registrant or its subsidiaries consolidated if:

(i) The acquisition generates substantially all of its revenues from oil and gas producing activities (as defined in Section 210.4-10(a)(16)); and

(ii) The qualifying conditions specified in paragraph (e)(1) of this section are met.

(3) If the financial statements are presented in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section, the disclosures specified in paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section must be provided.


Companion Policy to National Instrument 52-109 Certification of Disclosure in Issuers' Annual and Interim Filings
Part 1 General
Section 1.6

Acceptable Accounting Principles Other Than Canadian Gaap Applicable To Publicly Accountable Enterprises

If an issuer is permitted under NI 52-107 to file financial statements in accordance with acceptable accounting principles other than Canadian GAAP applicable to publicly accountable enterprises, then the issuer may interpret any reference in the Instrument to a term or provision defined or used in Canadian GAAP applicable to publicly accountable enterprises as a reference to the corresponding term or provision in the other acceptable accounting principles.


National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards
Part 1 Definitions and Interpretation
Section 1.1 Definitions

U.S. GAAP

In this Instrument:…

U.S. GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America that the SEC has identified as having substantial authoritative support, as supplemented by Regulation S-X under the 1934 Act, as amended from time to time;

Lexata note: This definition is cross-referenced in s. 1.1 of NI 51-102 and NI 41-101.


National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards
Part 3 Rules Applying to Financial Years Beginning on or After January 1, 2011
Section 3.17

Acceptable Accounting Principles for Predecessor Statements or Primary Business Statements that are an Operating Statement

If predecessor statements or primary business statements are an operating statement for an oil and gas property,

(a) the operating statement must include at least the following line items:

(i) gross sales;

(ii) royalties;

(iii) production costs;

(iv) operating income;

(b) the line items in the operating statement must be prepared using accounting policies that

(i) are permitted by one of:

(A) Canadian GAAP applicable to publicly accountable enterprises;

(B) U.S. GAAP if the issuer is an SEC issuer or an SEC foreign issuer;

(C) IFRS if the issuer is a foreign issuer, and

(ii) would apply to those line items if those line items were presented as part of a complete set of financial statements, and

(c) the operating statement must

(i) include the following statement:

This operating statement is prepared in accordance with the financial reporting framework specified in section 3.17 of National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards for an operating statement.

and

(ii) describe the accounting policies used to prepare the operating statement.


National Instrument 81-102 Investment Funds
Part 15 Sales Communications and Prohibited Representations
Section 15.11

Assumptions for Calculating Standard Performance Data

(1) The following assumptions must be made in the calculation of standard performance data of an investment fund:

1. Recurring fees and charges that are payable by all securityholders

(a) are accrued or paid in proportion to the length of the performance measurement period;

(b) if structured in a manner that would result in the performance information being dependent on the size of an investment, are calculated on the basis of an investment equal to the greater of $10,000 or the minimum amount that may be invested; and

(c) if fully negotiable, are calculated on the basis of the average fees paid by accounts of the size referred to in paragraph (b).

2. There are no fees and charges related to specific optional services.

3. All fees and charges payable by the investment fund are accrued or paid.

4. Dividends or distributions by the investment fund are reinvested in the investment fund at the net asset value per security of the investment fund on the reinvestment dates during the performance measurement period.

5. There are no non-recurring fees and charges that are payable by some or all securityholders and no recurring fees and charges that are payable by some but not all securityholders.

6. In the case of a mutual fund, a complete redemption occurs at the end of the performance measurement period so that the ending redeemable value includes elements of return that have been accrued but not yet paid to securityholders.

7. In the case of a non-redeemable investment fund, a complete redemption occurs at the net asset value of one security at the end of the performance measurement period so that the ending redeemable value includes elements of return that have been accrued but not yet paid to securityholders.

(2) The following assumptions must be made in the calculation of standard performance data of an asset allocation service:

1. Fees and charges that are payable by participants in the asset allocation service

(a) are accrued or paid in proportion to the length of the performance measurement period;

(b) if structured in a manner that would result in the performance information being dependent on the size of an investment, are calculated on the basis of an investment equal to the greater of $10,000 or the minimum amount that may be invested; and

(c) if fully negotiable, are calculated on the basis of the average fees paid by accounts of the size referred to in paragraph (b).

2. There are no fees and charges related to specific optional services.

3. The investment strategy recommended by the asset allocation service is utilized for the performance measurement period.

4. Transfer fees are

(a) accrued or paid;

(b) if structured in a manner that would result in the performance information being dependent on the size of an investment, calculated on the basis of an account equal to the greater of $10,000 or the minimum amount that may be invested; and

(c) if the fees and charges are fully negotiable, calculated on the basis of the average fees paid by an account of the size referred to in paragraph (b).

5. A complete redemption occurs at the end of the performance measurement period so that the ending redeemable value includes elements of return that have been accrued but not yet paid to securityholders.

(3) The calculation of standard performance data must be based on actual historical performance and the fees and charges payable by the investment fund and securityholders, or the asset allocation service and participants, in effect during the performance measurement period.


Companion Policy 51-101 Standards of Disclosure for Oil and Gas Activities
Part 4 Measurement
Section 4.1

Consistency in Dates

Section 4.2 of NI 51-101 requires consistency in the timing of recording the effects of events or transactions for the purposes of both annual financial statements and annual reserves data disclosure.

To ensure that the effects of events or transactions are recorded, disclosed or otherwise reflected consistently (in respect of timing) in all public disclosure, a reporting issuer will wish to ensure that both its financial auditors and its qualified reserves evaluators or auditors, as well as its directors, are kept apprised of relevant events and transactions, and to facilitate communication between its financial auditors and its qualified reserves evaluators or auditors.

Sections 4 and 12 of volume 1 of the COGE Handbook set out procedures and guidance for the conduct of reserves evaluations and reserves audits, respectively. Section 12 deals with the relationship between a reserves auditor and the client’s financial auditor. Section 4, in connection with reserves evaluations, deals somewhat differently with the relationship between the qualified reserves evaluator or auditor and the client’s financial auditor. The CSA recommend that qualified reserves evaluators or auditors carry out the procedures discussed in both sections 4 and 12 of volume 1 of the COGE Handbook, whether conducting a reserves evaluation or a reserves audit.