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Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Reconciliation
Re ss. 6(1)(e)(ii)(C), 6(2)

Reconciliation of a non-GAAP financial measure

Clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C) of the Instrument requires a quantitative reconciliation between the non-GAAP financial measure and the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements. For the purpose of clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C), a quantitative reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure is required to be the “permitted format” outlined in subsection 6(2) of the Instrument. An issuer may satisfy this requirement by providing a reconciliation in a clearly understandable way, such as a table. For purposes of presenting the reconciliation, an issuer may begin with the non-GAAP financial measure or the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements, provided the reconciliation is presented in an understandable and consistent manner.

Most Directly Comparable Financial Measure

The Instrument does not define the “most directly comparable financial measure” and therefore the issuer needs to apply judgment in determining the most directly comparable financial measure. In applying judgment, it is important for an issuer to consider the context of how the non-GAAP financial measure is used. For example, when the non-GAAP financial measure is discussed primarily as a performance measure used in determining cash generated by the issuer, or the issuer’s distribution-paying capacity, its most directly comparable financial measure will be from the statement of cash flows. In practice, earnings-based measures and cash flow-based measures are used to disclose operational performance. If it is not clear from the way the non-GAAP financial measure is used what the most directly comparable financial measure is, consideration can be given to the nature, number and materiality of the reconciling items.

Reconciling Items

The reconciliation must be quantitative, separately itemizing and explaining each significant reconciling item.

Source of Reconciling Items

When a reconciling item is taken directly from the entity’s financial statements, it should be named such that an investor is able to identify the item in those financial statements, and no further explanation of that reconciling item is required.

When a reconciling item is not extracted directly from the entity’s financial statements, but is, for example, a component of a line item in the entity’s primary financial statements or originates from outside the primary financial statements, disclosure must be provided to satisfy clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C) and subsection 6(2) of the Instrument. Such disclosure should identify the source of the reconciling item (e.g., the financial statement line item, the financial statement note, or the externally sourced document), if not obvious, and should explain how the amount is calculated, including a discussion of any significant judgments or estimates management has made in developing the reconciling items used in the reconciliation.

Entity-Specific Inputs

Reconciling items should be calculated using entity-specific inputs. An entity may make adjustments that are accepted within an industry; however, the quantum of these adjustments should be calculated using entity-specific information. For example, an entity may make an adjustment for operating capital expenditures, which is a standard adjustment in certain industries, but the amount of the adjustment should be calculated based on the entity’s operating capital expenditures, and not by using only an ‘industry average’ amount as the sole factor. However, adjustments should be supportable and consistent with the usefulness explanation provided to address clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(B) of the Instrument.

Level of Detail

The level of detail expected in the reconciliation depends on the nature and complexity of the reconciling items. The adjustments made from the most directly comparable financial measure should be consistent with the explanation required by clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(B) of the Instrument regarding why the information is useful to investors and if applicable, how it is used by management. Explanations should be more detailed than merely stating what the reconciling item represents and should also cover the circumstances that give rise to the particular adjustment if it is not obvious.

An “other” or “adjusting items” category to describe numerous insignificant reconciling items should not be used without further explanation as to the nature of items that comprise the category.

Gross Basis

Issuers should consider significant reconciling items on a gross basis. For example, an issuer is expected to separately itemize positive and negative adjustments unless netting is permitted under the financial reporting framework used in the preparation of the financial statements.

Tax

Reconciling items are commonly presented on a pre-tax basis to ensure that investors understand the gross amount of each reconciling item. If an issuer chooses to present reconciling items on a post-tax basis then the tax effect for each reconciling item should also be disclosed.

Comparatives

For comparative non-GAAP financial measures disclosed for a previous period under paragraph 6(1)(f) of the Instrument, a reconciliation to the corresponding most directly comparable financial measure is required for that previous period.

Presentation in the Form of a Primary Financial Statement

An issuer may present adjusted financial information outside the entity’s financial statements using a format that is similar to one or more of the primary financial statements, but that is not in accordance with the financial reporting framework used to prepare the entity’s financial statements. In this case, the adjusted financial information would contain non-GAAP financial measures. Specifically, this would arise if an issuer presents such financial measures in a form that is similar to the following financial statements:

  • A statement of financial position;
  • A statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income;
  • A statement of changes in equity; or
  • A statement of cash flows.

Presentation of this information as a single column that excludes the most directly comparable financial measures in a separate column would not satisfy clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C) and subsection 6(2) of the Instrument. However, this information may be presented in the form of a reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure if such presentation shows in separate columns each of the most directly comparable financial measures, the reconciling items, and the non-GAAP financial measures. An example of the separate column approach may be used when issuers with joint ventures present a full set of non-GAAP financial statements in the form of a columnar reconciliation that shows the issuer’s statement of income as presented in the primary financial statements, an additional column with amounts related to equity accounted investees for each financial statement line item, and then a total column for each financial statement line item, which would be appropriately labelled as non-GAAP financial measures for each financial statement line item. This effectively creates the presentation of a full set of non-GAAP financial statements.

When the adjusted presentation is used as a basis for the qualitative discussions and analysis of an entity’s financial performance, financial position or cash flows with greater prominence than financial measures presented in the primary financial statements, this would not be considered to be in compliance with the prominence requirement in paragraph 6(1)(d) of the Instrument.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 6

Non-GAAP financial measures that are historical information

(1) An issuer must not disclose a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information in a document unless all of the following apply:

(a) the non-GAAP financial measure is labelled using a term that,

(i) given the measure’s composition, describes the measure, and

(ii) distinguishes the measure from totals, subtotals and line items disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates;

(b) the non-GAAP financial measure is identified as a non-GAAP financial measure;

(c) the document discloses the most directly comparable financial measure that is disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates;

(d) the non-GAAP financial measure is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (c);

(e) in proximity to the first instance of the non-GAAP financial measure in the document, the document

(i) explains that the non-GAAP financial measure is not a standardized financial measure under the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates and might not be comparable to similar financial measures disclosed by other issuers,

(ii) discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5,

(A) an explanation of the composition of the non-GAAP financial measure,

(B) an explanation of how the non-GAAP financial measure provides useful information to an investor and explains the additional purposes, if any, for which management uses the non-GAAP financial measure,

(C) a quantitative reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure for its current and comparative period, if disclosed under paragraph (f), to the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (c), and that reconciliation is disclosed in the permitted format, and

(D) if the label or composition of the non-GAAP financial measure has changed from what was previously disclosed, an explanation of the reason for the change;

(f) if the non-GAAP financial measure is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the non-GAAP financial measure for a comparative period, determined using the same composition, is disclosed in the document, unless it is impracticable to do so.

(2) For the purpose of clause (1)(e)(ii)(C), a quantitative reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measure is in the “permitted format” if it

(a) is disaggregated quantitatively in a way that would enable a reasonable personapplying a reasonable effort to understand the reconciling items,

(b) explains each reconciling item, and

(c) does not describe a reconciling item as “non-recurring”, “infrequent”, “unusual”, or using a similar term, if a loss or gain of a similar nature is reasonably likely to occur within the entity’s 2 financial years that immediately follow the disclosure, or has occurred during the entity’s 2 financial years that immediately precede the disclosure.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Application and exceptions
Re ss. 4(2)

Statement of Executive Compensation

In the context of Form 51-102F6 Statement of Executive Compensation (“Form 51-102F6”) or Form 51-102F6V Statement of Executive Compensation – Venture Issuers (“Form 51-102F6V”), if a financial measure is identified (e.g., adjusted net income) and the calculation is described (e.g., net income adjusted for foreign exchange gains or losses) but no financial amount is disclosed (i.e., no dollar amount), it would not be within the scope of the Instrument because a financial measure has not been disclosed, only identified and described.

If a specified financial measure that is in scope of the Instrument is disclosed in Form 51-102F6 or Form 51-102F6V (e.g., adjusted net income of $X), as outlined in subsection 4(2) of the Instrument, only the following information is required, as applicable: the identification of the non-GAAP financial measure under paragraph 6(1)(b) and the quantitative reconciliation of the specified financial measure under clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(C), paragraph 9(c) or clause 10(1)(b)(ii)(C).


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 10

Capital management measures

(1) An issuer must not disclose a capital management measure in a document, other than financial statements about the entity to which the measure relates, unless all of the following apply:

(a) the capital management measure is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of similar financial measures disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity;

(b) in proximity to the first instance of the capital management measure in the document, the document,

(i) if the capital management measure was calculated using one or more non-GAAP financial measures, discloses each such non-GAAP financial measure;

(ii) discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5,

(A) for any capital management measure that is disclosed in the form of a ratio, fraction, percentage or similar representation, an explanation of its composition,

(B) an explanation of how the capital management measure provides useful information to an investor and explains the additional purposes, if any, for which management uses the capital management measure, and

(C) for any capital management measure that is not disclosed as a ratio, fraction, percentage or similar representation, a quantitative reconciliation of the capital management measure for its current and comparative period, if disclosed under paragraph (c), to the most directly comparable financial measure disclosed in the primary financial statements of the issuer;

(c) if the capital management measure is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the capital management measure for a comparative period, determined using the same composition, is disclosed in the document, unless it has not been previously disclosed.

(2) Subparagraph (1)(b)(ii) does not apply if the disclosure required under that subparagraph is made in the notes to the financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are historical information
Re ss. 6(1)(a)

Labelling a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information

Any label or term used to describe a non-GAAP financial measure, or adjustments in a reconciliation, must be appropriate given the nature of information.

For example, the following are not in compliance with the labelling requirement in paragraph 6(1)(a) of the Instrument:

  • Labels that are the same as, or confusingly similar to, those normally used under the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements. For example, a measure labelled “cash flows from operations” and calculated as cash flows from operating activities before changes in non-cash working capital items is confusingly similar to the term “cash flows from operating activities” specified in IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows;
  • Labels that purport to represent “results from operating activities” or a similar title but exclude items of an operating nature, such as inventory write-downs, restructuring costs, impairment of assets used for operations and stock-based compensation;
  • Labels that are overly optimistic (e.g., guaranteed profit or protected returns); and
  • Labels that may cause confusion based on the financial measure’s composition. For example, in presenting EBITDA as a non-GAAP financial measure, it would be inappropriate to exclude amounts for items other than interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization.

The above list is not exhaustive.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 1 Definitions and Application
Section 1

non-GAAP financial measure

“non-GAAP financial measure” means a financial measure disclosed by an issuer that

(a) depicts the historical or expected future financial performance, financial position or cash flow of an entity,

(b) with respect to its composition, excludes an amount that is included in, or includes an amount that is excluded from, the composition of the most directly comparable financial measure disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity,

(c) is not disclosed in the financial statements of the entity, and

(d) is not a ratio, fraction, percentage or similar representation;


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Definitions
Re s. 1

Definition of a non-GAAP financial measure

Common terms used to identify non-GAAP financial measures include “adjusted earnings”, “adjusted EBITDA”, “free cash flow”, “pro forma earnings”, “cash earnings”, “distributable cash”, “adjusted funds from operations”, “earnings before non-recurring items” and measures presented on a constant-currency basis. Many of these terms lack standard meanings. Issuers across a spectrum of industries, and within the same industry, may use the same term to refer to different compositions.

The following are examples of measures that are not captured by the definition:

  • Amounts that do not depict historical or future “financial performance”, “financial position” or “cash flow”, which relate to elements of the primary financial statements as defined in the Instrument, such as share price, market capitalization, or credit rating;
  • Financial information that does not have the effect of providing a financial measure that is different from a financial measure presented in the primary financial statements, such as the addition or subtraction of an identical line item, or a subtotal or total originating from multiple periods of primary financial statements. For example, rolling 12-month results or fourth quarter revenue calculated by subtracting year-to-date third quarter revenue from the annual revenue presented in primary financial statements; or
  • A financial measure which does not exclude an amount that is included in, or include an amount that is excluded from, the composition of the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements of the entity. For example, assets under management representing the total market value of invested assets managed by the issuer which are beneficially owned by clients and not reported in the primary financial statements of the issuer.

Component Information

When an issuer presents a financial statement line item in a more granular way outside the financial statements, otherwise known as a disaggregation, that number is a component of a line item that has been calculated in accordance with the accounting policies used to prepare the line item presented in the financial statements. Such a financial measure would not be a non-GAAP financial measure because it is not a financial measure which excludes an amount that is included in, or includes an amount that is excluded from, the composition of the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements of the entity. However, even though such a measure would not be a non-GAAP financial measure, it may still meet the definition of a supplementary financial measure.

For example, an issuer may disclose sales per square foot on a periodic basis to depict its financial performance. When the sales figure, included in sales per square foot, is extracted directly from the primary financial statements or is a component of such line item (when the component is calculated in accordance with the issuer’s accounting policies used to prepare the line item presented in the financial statements), the “sales per square foot” measure would not meet the definition of a non-GAAP ratio but would meet the definition of a supplementary financial measure. However, if the sales figure is not calculated in accordance with the issuer’s accounting policies, the “sales per square foot” measure in this example would meet the definition of a non-GAAP ratio.

Combinations of Line Items

A financial measure calculated by combining financial information that originates from different line items from the primary financial statements would meet the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure if the measure depicts financial performance, financial position or cash flow, unless that resulting measure is separately disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures that are Forward-looking Information

Forward-looking information for which there is an equivalent historical financial measure disclosed in the financial statements does not meet the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure. Therefore, section 7 of the Instrument does not apply to measures such as future capital management measures and future total of segments measures.

In addition, if, for example, revenue is disclosed on a forward-looking basis using the accounting policies applied by the issuer in its latest set of financial statements (i.e., revenue as presented in the primary financial statements adjusted only for assumptions about future economic conditions and courses of action), this forward-looking revenue is not a non-GAAP financial measure. Conversely, if an issuer discloses EBITDA on a forward-looking basis and does not disclose this financial measure in the financial statements, this forward-looking EBITDA does meet the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information.

Issuers are reminded that forward-looking information is subject to the disclosure requirements in Parts 4A and 4B and section 5.8 of National Instrument 51-102 Continuous Disclosure Obligations (“NI 51-102”).

Non-Financial Information

For clarity, the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure does not include non-financial information such as the following:

  • Number of units;
  • Number of subscribers;
  • Volumetric information;
  • Number of employees or workforce by type of contract or geographical location;
  • Environmental measures such as greenhouse gas emissions;
  • Information on major shareholdings;
  • Acquisition or disposal of the issuer’s own shares; and
  • Total number of voting rights.

The above list is not exhaustive.

We remind issuers that while non-financial information is not subject to the requirements of the Instrument, non-financial information is subject to various disclosure requirements under applicable securities legislation, including the requirement not to disclose misleading information.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Capital management measures
Re s. 10

Disclosure of capital management measures

Disclosure of information that enables an individual to evaluate an entity’s objectives, policies and processes for managing capital may be required by the financial reporting framework used in the preparation of the financial statements; for example, requirements in IFRS under IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements.

How an entity manages its capital is entity-specific and the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements might not prescribe a specific calculation. The accompanying disclosure required by section 10 of the Instrument allows a reader to understand how an entity calculates these capital management measures and how they relate to measures presented in the entity’s primary financial statements when these measures are disclosed in documents other than the financial statements.

A capital management measure does not include a component of a financial statement line item for which the component has been calculated in accordance with the accounting policies used to prepare the line item presented in the financial statements (see Component Information in section 1 of the Policy). An example of a capital management measure may include annualized adjusted EBITDA.

If the capital management measure was calculated using one or more non-GAAP financial measures, under subparagraph 10(1)(b)(i) of the Instrument the issuer must disclose each non-GAAP financial measure and comply with section 6 of the Instrument, in respect of each non-GAAP financial measure used in the calculation of the capital management measure.

Clause 10(1)(b)(ii)(A) of the Instrument requires a clear explanation of the composition, for any capital management measure that is disclosed in the form of a ratio, fraction, percentage or similar representation.

The level of detail expected in the reconciliation required under clause 10(1)(b)(ii)(C) is a matter of judgment and depends on the nature and complexity of the reconciling items required to provide the necessary context.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are historical information
Re ss. 6(1)(d)

Prominence of a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information

Determining the relative prominence of a non-GAAP financial measure is a matter of judgment, involving consideration of the overall disclosure and the facts and circumstances in which the disclosure is made.

The presentation of a non-GAAP financial measure should not in any way confuse or obscure the presentation of the most directly comparable financial measure that is presented in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the measure relates.

The following are examples that would cause a non-GAAP financial measure to be more prominent than the most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements:

  • Presenting a non-GAAP financial measure in the form of a statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income without presenting it in the form of a reconciliation to the most directly comparable financial measure, sometimes referred to as a “single column approach”;
  • Omitting the most directly comparable financial measure from a news release headline or caption that includes a non-GAAP financial measure;
  • Presenting a non-GAAP financial measure using a style of presentation (e.g., bold, underlined, italicized, or larger font) that emphasizes the non-GAAP financial measure over the most directly comparable financial measure;
  • Multiple non-GAAP financial measures being used for the same or similar purpose thereby obscuring disclosure of the most directly comparable financial measure;
  • Providing tabular or graphical disclosure of non-GAAP financial measures without presenting an equally prominent tabular or graphical disclosure of the most directly comparable financial measures; and
  • Providing a discussion and analysis of a non-GAAP financial measure in a more prominent location than a similar discussion and analysis of the most directly comparable financial measure. For greater certainty, a location is not more prominent if it allows an investor who reads the document, or other material containing the non-GAAP financial measure, to be able to view the discussion and analysis of both the non-GAAP financial measure and the most directly comparable financial measure contemporaneously (e.g., within the previous, same or next page of the document).

The above list is not exhaustive.

The Instrument requires that the non-GAAP financial measure be presented with “no more prominence in the document than that of the most directly comparable financial measure” presented in the primary financial statements. If the most directly comparable financial measure is presented with “equal or greater prominence” than the non-GAAP financial measure, the requirement under paragraph 6(1)(d) of the Instrument has been met.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are forward-looking Information
Re ss. 7(2)(d)

Description of any significant difference between the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information and the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure

The requirement in paragraph 7(2)(d) of the Instrument can be addressed in a schedule or other presentation which details significant differences between the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information and the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure. The material factors and assumptions that were used to develop the forward-looking information, as specified in paragraph 4A.3(c) of NI 51-102, will complement this disclosure.


Companion Policy 51-102CP Continuous Disclosure Obligations
Part 4 Disclosure and Presentation of Financial Information
Section 4.2

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Reporting issuers that intend to publish financial measures other than those prescribed by Canadian GAAP applicable to publicly accountable enterprises should refer to CSA Staff Notice 52-306 Non-GAAP Financial Measures* for a discussion of staff expectations concerning the use of non-GAAP measures.

* Lexata note: Staff Notice 52-306 was replaced by National Instrument 52-112 and its Companion Policy as of August 25, 2021. There are exceptions for annual materials filed in respect of 2020. For transition details, see Part 5 of the new rule.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Prominence of similar financial measures
Re ss. 8(b) and 10(1)(a)

Prominence of similar financial measures

The prominence requirements in paragraphs 8(b) and 10(1)(a) of the Instrument for non-GAAP ratios and capital management measures differ from the requirements for non-GAAP financial measures in paragraph 6(1)(d) and the requirements for total of segments measures in paragraph 9(b). However, the principle that the non-GAAP ratios and capital management measures should be presented with no more prominence than that of measures from the primary financial statements remains the same.

Many non-GAAP ratios and capital management measures do not have a most directly comparable financial measure. As such, issuers should consider the disclosure of the non-GAAP ratio and capital management measure in relation to the overall disclosure of similar financial measures presented in the primary financial statements to which the non-GAAP ratio or the capital management measure relates. For example, the prominence requirement in paragraph 8(b) of the Instrument is not met if the issuer focused its disclosure on an increased gross margin percentage without giving at least equally prominent disclosure to the fact that sales have significantly decreased over the same time period, resulting in a reduction in total profit period over period. In this example, it is assumed that the financial measure of “gross margin” is not presented in the primary financial statements and therefore meets the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure. As a further example, the discussion of a “total cash cost per ounce” financial measure should not be more prominent than the discussion of cost of sales, the similar financial measure presented in the primary financial statements to which the non-GAAP ratio relates.

An issuer that discloses a capital management measure such as “adjusted debt will meet the requirement in paragraph 10(1)(a) by giving at least equally prominent disclosure to similar financial measures presented in the primary financial statements such as short-term and long-term debt.

For a non-GAAP ratio or a capital management measure which has a most directly comparable financial measure presented in the primary financial statements, the guidance on prominence contained in this Policy for paragraph 6(1)(d) should be referred to. For example, the most directly comparable financial measure of “adjusted earnings per share” is “earnings per share” and we expect that the discussion of “adjusted earnings per share” should not be more prominent than the discussion of “earnings per share”.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 9

Total of segments measures

An issuer must not disclose a total of segments measure in a document, other than in financial statements about the entity to which the measure relates, unless all of the following apply:

(a) the document discloses the most directly comparable financial measure disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity;

(b) the total of segments measure is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (a);

(c) in proximity to the first instance of the total of segments measure in the document, the document discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5, a quantitative reconciliation of the total of segments measure for its current and comparative period, if disclosed under paragraph (d), to the most directly comparable financial measure referred to in paragraph (a), in the permitted format referred to in subsection 6(2);

(d) if the total of segments measure is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the total of segments measure for a comparative period, determined using the same composition, is disclosed in the document, unless it has not been previously disclosed.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 7

Non-GAAP financial measures that are forward-looking information

(1) In this section,

“equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure” means a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information and has the same composition as a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information;

“SEC issuer” has the meaning ascribed to it in National Instrument 52-107 Acceptable Accounting Principles and Auditing Standards.

(2) An issuer must not disclose a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-lookinginformation in a document unless all of the following apply:

(a) the document discloses an equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure;

(b) the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information is labelled using the same label used for the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure;

(c) the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information ispresented with no more prominence in the document than that of the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure;

(d) in proximity to the first instance of the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information in the document, the document discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5, a description of any significant difference between the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information and the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure.

(3) Subsection (2) does not apply if the disclosure is made

(a) by an SEC issuer, and

(b) in compliance with Regulation G under the 1934 Act.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP ratios
Re ss. 8(c)(ii)

Subparagraph 8(c)(ii) – Disclosure of each non-GAAP financial measure that is used as a component of the non-GAAP ratio

For a non-GAAP ratio that is calculated using one or more non-GAAP financial measures, the issuer must disclose each non-GAAP financial measure and comply with section 6 of the Instrument in respect of each non-GAAP financial measure used in the calculation of the non-GAAP ratio.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Reasons for changes
Re ss. 6(1)(e)(ii)(D) and 8(c)(iii)(C)

Explanation of the reason for the change in a non-GAAP financial measure or a non-GAAP ratio

If the label or composition of the non-GAAP financial measure or non-GAAP ratio has changed from what was previously disclosed, the requirement of clauses 6(1)(e)(ii)(D) and 8(c)(iii)(C) of the Instrument would apply.

Including additional reconciling items or excluding previously included reconciling items between the non-GAAP financial measure and the most directly comparable financial measure constitutes a change in composition. A clear explanation of the reason for this change is required under clauses 6(1)(e)(ii)(D) and 8(c)(iii)(C) of the Instrument, which would include a restatement of comparatives, when disclosed as required under paragraph 6(1)(f) or 8(d).

A change in magnitude of an individual item would not constitute a change in composition. For example, an issuer may define adjusted earnings as earnings before impairment losses and transaction costs. Transaction costs may only be incurred every three years, such that there may be no adjustment in year two to reflect transaction costs, but there should be an explanation noting that the issuer expects that it will incur transaction costs in the future. In this example, the issuer should continue to include transaction costs in the explanation of the composition under clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(A) or 8(c)(iii)(A) to maintain consistency of the non-GAAP financial measure or non-GAAP ratio.

Given that disclosure of non-GAAP financial measures and non-GAAP ratios is optional, disclosing a particular non-GAAP financial measure or non-GAAP ratio does not create an obligation to continue disclosing that measure in future periods. If, however, an issuer replaces a non-GAAP financial measure or a non-GAAP ratio with another measure or ratio, fraction or similar representation that achieves the same objectives (that is, the usefulness information provided to comply with clauses 6(1)(e)(ii)(B) and 8(c)(iii)(B) of the Instrument was consistent for both measures), the requirement of clauses 6(1)(e)(ii)(D) and 8(c)(iii)(C) of the Instrument would apply.

If the label of a non-GAAP financial measure or non-GAAP ratio has changed, while the explanation for the change may be incorporated by reference, we expect the issuer to make it clear in the document that the label has changed in the current period from that disclosed in the prior period.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Comparative information
Re ss. 6(1)(f) and 8(d)

Presenting comparative information for a non-GAAP financial measure or a non-GAAP ratio

Impracticable

Understandably, it is impracticable for an issuer to provide the comparative disclosure required by paragraph 6(1)(f) or 8(d) of the Instrument when the current period is the first period of operations and no comparative period exists. However, when a comparative period exists, we do not consider the cost or the time involved in preparing the comparative information to be sufficient rationale for an issuer to assert that it is impracticable to disclose such information.

Changes in Accounting Standards

We would not consider adoption of a new accounting standard, which would include adoption of amendments to current accounting standards, or a change in accounting policy, to be a basis for not presenting comparative period disclosure, as the composition of the non-GAAP financial measure should continue to be the same.

Adoption of new accounting standards, or changes in accounting policy, may modify measurement and recognition of transactions which will have an impact on line items, subtotals and totals over different financial periods. However, the composition of the non-GAAP financial measure itself should not change. Consider, for example, an issuer that discloses EBITDA as its non-GAAP financial measure, and in the current year adopts a new accounting standard which modifies the classification of certain expenditures from administrative expense to interest expense. While the resulting EBITDA measure will no longer include those transactions, EBITDA will continue to have the same composition, as it will comprise earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization. Therefore, the issuer would not be subject to the explanation of the reason for the change disclosure under clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(D).

The financial reporting framework used to prepare an entity’s financial statements would determine whether comparative information is restated with adoption of a new accounting standard or change in accounting policy. For example, we expect comparative non-GAAP financial measures to be restated when a new accounting standard or policy is applied retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented. Conversely, if a new accounting standard is applied prospectively or retrospectively without restatement of a prior reporting period presented, the specified financial measures would also not be restated. In such circumstances, the issuer communicates that the comparative non-GAAP financial measures are disclosed under the previous financial reporting framework used to prepare the entity’s financial statements.

In both cases, the composition of the specified financial measure has not changed, and the explanation of the reason for the change disclosure under clause 6(1)(e)(ii)(D) would not be required.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are forward-looking Information
Re ss. 7(2)(a)

Equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure

Under paragraph 7(2)(a) of the Instrument, an issuer must disclose, in the same document where the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information is disclosed, the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure. The issuer must also comply with section 6 of the Instrument in respect of the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure disclosed.

The equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure must have the same composition as a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information. For example, adjusted EBITDA would be the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure of forward-looking adjusted EBITDA.

Determining the relevant historical period to satisfy the requirement in paragraph 7(2)(a) of the Instrument is a matter of judgment, considering the time period covered by the forward-looking information and the extent to which the business of the issuer is cyclical or seasonal. For example, when an issuer discloses forward-looking information for the three months ending June 30, 20X2, the relevant period for the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure may be:

  • Where the business of the issuer is not seasonal, the issuer’s most recent interim period for which annual financial statements or an interim financial report has been filed (e.g., the three months ended March 31, 20X2); or
  • Where the business of the issuer is seasonal, the comparable historical interim period to that of the financial outlook disclosed (e.g., the three months ended June 30, 20X1).

Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are forward-looking Information
Re ss. 7(2)(c)

Prominence of a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information

The Instrument requires a non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information to be presented with no more prominence in the document than that of the equivalent historical non-GAAP financial measure disclosed. This means that the non-GAAP financial measure that is forward-looking information must be presented with no more prominence than that of the most directly comparable financial measure that is presented in the primary financial statements, as required by paragraph 6(1)(d) of the Instrument.


Regulation S-K
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
SEC Rules
Item 10(e)

Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures in Commission Filings

(1)Whenever one or more non-GAAP financial measures are included in a filing with the Commission:

(i) The registrant must include the following in the filing:

(A) A presentation, with equal or greater prominence, of the most directly comparable financial measure or measures calculated and presented in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP);

(B) A reconciliation (by schedule or other clearly understandable method), which shall be quantitative for historical non-GAAP measures presented, and quantitative, to the extent available without unreasonable efforts, for forward-looking information, of the differences between the non-GAAP financial measure disclosed or released with the most directly comparable financial measure or measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP identified in paragraph (e)(1)(i)(A) of this section;

(C) A statement disclosing the reasons why the registrant’s management believes that presentation of the non-GAAP financial measure provides useful information to investors regarding the registrant’s financial condition and results of operations; and

(D) To the extent material, a statement disclosing the additional purposes, if any, for which the registrant’s management uses the non-GAAP financial measure that are not disclosed pursuant to paragraph (e)(1)(i)(C) of this section; and

(ii) A registrant must not:

(A) Exclude charges or liabilities that required, or will require, cash settlement, or would have required cash settlement absent an ability to settle in another manner, from non-GAAP liquidity measures, other than the measures earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA);

(B) Adjust a non-GAAP performance measure to eliminate or smooth items identified as non-recurring, infrequent or unusual, when the nature of the charge or gain is such that it is reasonably likely to recur within two years or there was a similar charge or gain within the prior two years;

(C) Present non-GAAP financial measures on the face of the registrant’s financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP or in the accompanying notes;

(D) Present non-GAAP financial measures on the face of any pro forma financial information required to be disclosed by Article 11 of Regulation S-X (17 CFR 210.11-01 through 210.11-03); or

(E) Use titles or descriptions of non-GAAP financial measures that are the same as, or confusingly similar to, titles or descriptions used for GAAP financial measures; and

(iii) If the filing is not an annual report on Form 10-K or Form 20-F (17 CFR 249.220f), a registrant need not include the information required by paragraphs (e)(1)(i)(C) and (e)(1)(i)(D) of this section if that information was included in its most recent annual report on Form 10-K or Form 20-F or a more recent filing, provided that the required information is updated to the extent necessary to meet the requirements of paragraphs (e)(1)(i)(C) and (e)(1)(i)(D) of this section at the time of the registrant’s current filing.

(2) For purposes of this paragraph (e), a non-GAAP financial measure is a numerical measure of a registrant’s historical or future financial performance, financial position or cash flows that:

(i) Excludes amounts, or is subject to adjustments that have the effect of excluding amounts, that are included in the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP in the statement of comprehensive income, balance sheet or statement of cash flows (or equivalent statements) of the issuer; or

(ii) Includes amounts, or is subject to adjustments that have the effect of including amounts, that are excluded from the most directly comparable measure so calculated and presented.

(3) For purposes of this paragraph (e), GAAP refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, except that:

(i) In the case of foreign private issuers whose primary financial statements are prepared in accordance with non-U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, GAAP refers to the principles under which those primary financial statements are prepared; and

(ii) In the case of foreign private issuers that include a non-GAAP financial measure derived from or based on a measure calculated in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, GAAP refers to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles for purposes of the application of the requirements of this paragraph (e) to the disclosure of that measure.

(4) For purposes of this paragraph (e), non-GAAP financial measures exclude:

(i) Operating and other statistical measures; and

(ii) Ratios or statistical measures calculated using exclusively one or both of:

(A) Financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP; and

(B) Operating measures or other measures that are not non-GAAP financial measures.

(5) For purposes of this paragraph (e), non-GAAP financial measures exclude financial measures required to be disclosed by GAAP, Commission rules, or a system of regulation of a government or governmental authority or self-regulatory organization that is applicable to the registrant. However, the financial measure should be presented outside of the financial statements unless the financial measure is required or expressly permitted by the standard-setter that is responsible for establishing the GAAP used in such financial statements.

(6) The requirements of paragraph (e) of this section shall not apply to a non-GAAP financial measure included in disclosure relating to a proposed business combination, the entity resulting therefrom or an entity that is a party thereto, if the disclosure is contained in a communication that is subject to Section 230.425 of this chapter, Section 240.14a-12 or Section 240.14d-2(b)(2) of this chapter or Section 229.1015 of this chapter.

(7) The requirements of paragraph (e) of this section shall not apply to investment companies registered under section 8 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-8).

Note to paragraph (e): A non-GAAP financial measure that would otherwise be prohibited by paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section is permitted in a filing of a foreign private issuer if:

1. The non-GAAP financial measure relates to the GAAP used in the registrant’s primary financial statements included in its filing with the Commission;

2. The non-GAAP financial measure is required or expressly permitted by the standard-setter that is responsible for establishing the GAAP used in such financial statements; and

3. The non-GAAP financial measure is included in the annual report prepared by the registrant for use in the jurisdiction in which it is domiciled, incorporated or organized or for distribution to its security holders.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Introduction

Financial Reporting Framework, Accounting Principles, and Accounting Policies

In Canada, there are different financial reporting frameworks for different types of entities. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) is a common term used to refer to a financial reporting framework that comprises the accounting principles that are generally accepted in a jurisdiction. National Instrument 52-107 Accounting and Auditing Principles prescribes, among other things, acceptable accounting principles, such as International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”).

The application of accounting principles often requires specific accounting policies. Accounting policies encompass all accounting policies applied in preparing and presenting financial statements, not just those which are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.


National Instrument 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Part 3 Specified Financial Measure Disclosure
Section 8

Non-GAAP Ratios

An issuer must not disclose a non-GAAP ratio in a document unless all of the following apply:

(a) the non-GAAP ratio is labelled using a term that, given the non-GAAP ratio’s composition, describes the nonGAAP ratio;

(b) the non-GAAP ratio is presented with no more prominence in the document than that of similar financial measures disclosed in the primary financial statements of the entity to which the non-GAAP ratio relates;

(c) in proximity to the first instance of the non-GAAP ratio in the document, the document

(i) explains that the non-GAAP ratio is not a standardized financial measure under the financial reporting framework used to prepare the financial statements of the entity to which the non-GAAP ratio relates and might not be comparable to similar financial measures disclosed by other issuers,

(ii) discloses each non-GAAP financial measure that is used as a component of the non-GAAP ratio,

(iii) discloses, directly or by incorporating it by reference as permitted under section 5, an explanation of

(A) the composition of the non-GAAP ratio,

(B) how the non-GAAP ratio provides useful information to an investor and explains the additional
purposes, if any, for which management uses the non-GAAP ratio, and

(C) if the label or the composition of the non-GAAP ratio has changed from what was previously
disclosed, an explanation of the reason for the change;

(d) if the non-GAAP ratio is disclosed in MD&A or in an earnings release of the issuer, the non-GAAP ratio for a comparative period, determined using the same means of calculation, is disclosed in the document, unless

(i) the non-GAAP ratio is forward-looking information, or

(ii) it is impracticable to disclose the measure for the comparative period.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Non-GAAP financial measures that are historical information
Re ss. 6(1)(b)

Identification of a non-GAAP financial measure that is historical information

An issuer may satisfy the paragraph 6(1)(b) identification requirement by inserting a footnote to the non-GAAP financial measure that is disclosed in the document, with a statement similar to the following: “This is a non-GAAP financial measure. Refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section of this document for more information on each non-GAAP financial measure”.

The issuer should exercise judgement in assessing whether the non-GAAP financial measure should be identified with a footnote each time the measure is disclosed in the document, considering the nature and extent of the use of this measure.


Companion Policy to NI 52-112 Non-GAAP and Other Financial Measures Disclosure
Introduction

Specified Financial Measures Disclosed by an Issuer and Financial Statements of an Entity

An issuer may disclose a specified financial measure that is derived from its financial statements or the financial statements of another entity. The following are examples of financial statements of an entity, other than the issuer’s financial statements, that a specified financial measure may be derived from:

  • Financial statements of a reverse takeover acquirer or financial statements of an acquired business included in a document filed by an issuer;
  • Financial statements that are required to be filed with or delivered to a regulator or a securities regulatory authority, or made reasonably available to each holder of a security acquired, as required by a provision of National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions (“NI 45-106”);
  • Financial statements of a subsidiary, joint venture or associate for which summarized financial information is disclosed in the notes to the financial statements of the issuer;
  • Financial statements of an investment entity’s investments, when supplemental financial information is included in the financial statements or the management’s discussion & analysis (the “MD&A”) of the investment entity; and
  • Financial statements of an entity with which the issuer completed a transaction that are included in a filing statement or a listing document.